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Influence of the Nanostructure of Gallium Oxide Catalysts on Conversion in the Green Synthesis of Carbamates

1
Chemical Engineering Department, University of Tulsa, 800 South Tucker Drive, Tulsa, OK 74104-9700, USA
2
Lalit, Gulmohar Park, Pune 411007, India
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Catalysts 2017, 7(12), 372; https://doi.org/10.3390/catal7120372
Received: 17 October 2017 / Revised: 22 November 2017 / Accepted: 27 November 2017 / Published: 1 December 2017
The nanostructure of β-gallium oxide crystals influences the conversion to carbamates; specifically, for the synthesis of alkyl carbamates (like propyl N-octylcarbamate) from CO2 and n-propanol in the absence of phosgene. The nanostructures with variable aspect ratios (length (L)/width (D); from 2 to 18) were prepared by the controlled addition of neutral and cationic surfactants during gallium oxide synthesis. These catalysts displayed selectivities to the corresponding carbamates as high as ~70%, superior to non-nanostructured Ga2O3 catalysts. The conversion was found to be inversely proportional to the square of the relative crystallinity. The catalysts retained their structure and catalytic performance upon recycling. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbamates; nanostructured gallium oxide; green chemistry carbamates; nanostructured gallium oxide; green chemistry
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Shah, J.; Ratnasamy, P.; Carreon, M.L. Influence of the Nanostructure of Gallium Oxide Catalysts on Conversion in the Green Synthesis of Carbamates. Catalysts 2017, 7, 372.

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