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Rock-Paper-Scissors Play: Beyond the Win-Stay/Lose-Change Strategy

School of Psychology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan 430079, China
Department of Social and Decision Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
EM Lyon Business School, GATE UMR 5824, F-69130 Ecully, France
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ben Dyson
Games 2021, 12(3), 52;
Received: 30 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 28 May 2021 / Published: 22 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Psychological Perspectives on Simple Games)
This research studied the strategies that players use in sequential adversarial games. We took the Rock-Paper-Scissors (RPS) game as an example and ran players in two experiments. The first experiment involved two humans, who played the RPS together for 100 times. Importantly, our payoff design in the RPS allowed us to differentiate between participants who used a random strategy from those who used a Nash strategy. We found that participants did not play in agreement with the Nash strategy, but rather, their behavior was closer to random. Moreover, the analyses of the participants’ sequential actions indicated heterogeneous cycle-based behaviors: some participants’ actions were independent of their past outcomes, some followed a well-known win-stay/lose-change strategy, and others exhibited the win-change/lose-stay behavior. To understand the sequential patterns of outcome-dependent actions, we designed probabilistic computer algorithms involving specific change actions (i.e., to downgrade or upgrade according to the immediate past outcome): the Win-Downgrade/Lose-Stay (WDLS) or Win-Stay/Lose-Upgrade (WSLU) strategies. Experiment 2 used these strategies against a human player. Our findings show that participants followed a win-stay strategy against the WDLS algorithm and a lose-change strategy against the WSLU algorithm, while they had difficulty in using an upgrade/downgrade direction, suggesting humans’ limited ability to detect and counter the actions of the algorithm. Taken together, our two experiments showed a large diversity of sequential strategies, where the win-stay/lose-change strategy did not describe the majority of human players’ dynamic behaviors in this adversarial situation. View Full-Text
Keywords: rock-paper-scissors; win-stay/lose-change; theory of mind rock-paper-scissors; win-stay/lose-change; theory of mind
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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhang, H.; Moisan, F.; Gonzalez, C. Rock-Paper-Scissors Play: Beyond the Win-Stay/Lose-Change Strategy. Games 2021, 12, 52.

AMA Style

Zhang H, Moisan F, Gonzalez C. Rock-Paper-Scissors Play: Beyond the Win-Stay/Lose-Change Strategy. Games. 2021; 12(3):52.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Zhang, Hanshu, Frederic Moisan, and Cleotilde Gonzalez. 2021. "Rock-Paper-Scissors Play: Beyond the Win-Stay/Lose-Change Strategy" Games 12, no. 3: 52.

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