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Open AccessArticle

Implementation of an Analytical Model for Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose in a Proton Radiotherapy Planning System

Department of Radiation Physics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, 1515 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA
Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The University of Texas, 6767 Bertner Ave., Houston, TX 77030, USA
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University and Agricultural and Mechanical College, 202 Nicholson Hall, Tower Drive, Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA
Mary Bird Perkins Cancer Center, 4950 Essen Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70809, USA
GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung, Planckstr. 1, Darmstadt 64291, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Xiaodong Zhang
Cancers 2015, 7(1), 427-438;
Received: 2 December 2014 / Revised: 12 February 2015 / Accepted: 2 March 2015 / Published: 11 March 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Proton Therapy for Cancer)
Equivalent dose from neutrons produced during proton radiotherapy increases the predicted risk of radiogenic late effects. However, out-of-field neutron dose is not taken into account by commercial proton radiotherapy treatment planning systems. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of implementing an analytical model to calculate leakage neutron equivalent dose in a treatment planning system. Passive scattering proton treatment plans were created for a water phantom and for a patient. For both the phantom and patient, the neutron equivalent doses were small but non-negligible and extended far beyond the therapeutic field. The time required for neutron equivalent dose calculation was 1.6 times longer than that required for proton dose calculation, with a total calculation time of less than 1 h on one processor for both treatment plans. Our results demonstrate that it is feasible to predict neutron equivalent dose distributions using an analytical dose algorithm for individual patients with irregular surfaces and internal tissue heterogeneities. Eventually, personalized estimates of neutron equivalent dose to organs far from the treatment field may guide clinicians to create treatment plans that reduce the risk of late effects. View Full-Text
Keywords: neutron; dose algorithm; equivalent; proton; therapy; stray dose neutron; dose algorithm; equivalent; proton; therapy; stray dose
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Eley, J.; Newhauser, W.; Homann, K.; Howell, R.; Schneider, C.; Durante, M.; Bert, C. Implementation of an Analytical Model for Leakage Neutron Equivalent Dose in a Proton Radiotherapy Planning System. Cancers 2015, 7, 427-438.

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