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PARP-1: Friend or Foe of DNA Damage and Repair in Tumorigenesis?
Department of Radiation Oncology Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, 176F HSROC Suite 2232B, 1700 6th Avenue South, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA
Department of Cell, Developmental and Integrative Biology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL 35249, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 May 2013; in revised form: 17 July 2013 / Accepted: 19 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
Abstract: Oxidative stress induced by reactive oxygen species can result in DNA damage within cells and subsequently increase risk for carcinogenesis. This may be averted by repair of DNA damage through the base or nucleotide excision repair (BER/NER) pathways. PARP, a BER protein, is known for its role in DNA-repair. However, multiple lesions can occur within a small range of DNA, known as oxidative clustered DNA lesions (OCDLs), which are difficult to repair and may lead to the more severe DNA double-strand break (DSB). Inefficient DSB repair can then result in increased mutagenesis and neoplastic transformation. OCDLs occur more frequently within a variety of tumor tissues. Interestingly, PARP is highly expressed in several human cancers. Additionally, chronic inflammation may contribute to tumorigenesis through ROS-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, PARP can modulate inflammation through interaction with NFκB and regulating the expression of inflammatory signaling molecules. Thus, the upregulation of PARP may present a double-edged sword. PARP is needed to repair ROS-induced DNA lesions, but PARP expression may lead to increased inflammation via upregulation of NFκB signaling. Here, we discuss the role of PARP in the repair of oxidative damage versus the formation of OCDLs and speculate on the feasibility of PARP inhibition for the treatment and prevention of cancers by exploiting its role in inflammation.
Keywords: PARP-1; oxidative clustered DNA lesions; inflammation; NFκB; PARP inhibitor; reactive oxygen species; ROS
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MDPI and ACS Style
Swindall, A.F.; Stanley, J.A.; Yang, E.S. PARP-1: Friend or Foe of DNA Damage and Repair in Tumorigenesis? Cancers 2013, 5, 943-958.
Swindall AF, Stanley JA, Yang ES. PARP-1: Friend or Foe of DNA Damage and Repair in Tumorigenesis? Cancers. 2013; 5(3):943-958.
Swindall, Amanda F.; Stanley, Jennifer A.; Yang, Eddy S. 2013. "PARP-1: Friend or Foe of DNA Damage and Repair in Tumorigenesis?" Cancers 5, no. 3: 943-958.