Next Article in Journal
Inflammation and Tumor Microenvironment in Lymph Node Metastasis
Next Article in Special Issue
Genetic Alterations in Glioma
Previous Article in Journal
Tissue Transglutaminase (TG2)-Induced Inflammation in Initiation, Progression, and Pathogenesis of Pancreatic Cancer
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Methodological Framework for Evaluating the Evidence for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) for Cancer
Open AccessReview

Protein Kinase A in Cancer

Department of Human Anatomy and Physiology, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 3, 35131 Padova, Italy
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2011, 3(1), 913-926;
Received: 17 January 2011 / Revised: 9 February 2011 / Accepted: 22 February 2011 / Published: 28 February 2011
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cancer Diagnosis and Targeted Therapy)
In the past, many chromosomal and genetic alterations have been examined as possible causes of cancer. However, some tumors do not display a clear molecular and/or genetic signature. Therefore, other cellular processes may be involved in carcinogenesis. Genetic alterations of proteins involved in signal transduction have been extensively studied, for example oncogenes, while modifications in intracellular compartmentalization of these molecules, or changes in the expression of unmodified genes have received less attention. Yet, epigenetic modulation of second messenger systems can deeply modify cellular functioning and in the end may cause instability of many processes, including cell mitosis. It is important to understand the functional meaning of modifications in second messenger intracellular pathways and unravel the role of downstream proteins in the initiation and growth of tumors. Within this framework, the cAMP system has been examined. cAMP is a second messenger involved in regulation of a variety of cellular functions. It acts mainly through its binding to cAMP-activated protein kinases (PKA), that were suggested to participate in the onset and progression of various tumors. PKA may represent a biomarker for tumor detection, identification and staging, and may be a potential target for pharmacological treatment of tumors. View Full-Text
Keywords: cancer; cAMP; PKA; diagnosis; therapy cancer; cAMP; PKA; diagnosis; therapy
MDPI and ACS Style

Caretta, A.; Mucignat-Caretta, C. Protein Kinase A in Cancer. Cancers 2011, 3, 913-926.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop