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Review

A Comprehensive Review of the Current and Future Role of the Microbiome in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

1
Minimal Access Therapy Training Unit (MATTU), Leggett Building, University of Surrey, Daphne Jackson Road, Guildford GU2 7WG, UK
2
Department of Hepato-Pancreato-Biliary (HPB) Surgery, Royal Surrey County Hospital, Egerton Road, Guildford GU2 7XX, UK
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Targeted Cancer Therapy Unit, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Science, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7WG, UK
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Institute of Cancer and Genomic Sciences, College of Medical and Dental Sciences, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
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Department of Life Sciences, South Kensington Campus, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, UK
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Division of Cancer, Department of Surgery and Cancer, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Hospital Campus, London W12 0NN, UK
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Department of Medical Oncology, VU University Medical Center, Cancer Center Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Fondazione Pisa per la Scienza, 56017 San Giuliano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Mathias Worni
Cancers 2022, 14(4), 1020; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14041020
Received: 16 December 2021 / Revised: 11 February 2022 / Accepted: 15 February 2022 / Published: 17 February 2022
This review summarizes the current literature related to the microbiome and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The aim of this review is to explore the current role of the microbiome in the disease process, screening/diagnostics and to postulate the future role with regards to therapeutic strategies including chemotherapy, immunotherapy and surgery. We further explore the future of microbiome modulation (faecal microbiome transplants, bacterial consortiums, anti-microbials and probiotics), their applications and how we can improve the future of microbiome modulation in a bid to improve PDAC outcomes.
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is expected to become the second most common cause of cancer death in the USA by 2030, yet progress continues to lag behind that of other cancers, with only 9% of patients surviving beyond 5 years. Long-term survivorship of PDAC and improving survival has, until recently, escaped our understanding. One recent frontier in the cancer field is the microbiome. The microbiome collectively refers to the extensive community of bacteria and fungi that colonise us. It is estimated that there is one to ten prokaryotic cells for each human somatic cell, yet, the significance of this community in health and disease has, until recently, been overlooked. This review examines the role of the microbiome in PDAC and how it may alter survival outcomes. We evaluate the possibility of employing microbiomic signatures as biomarkers of PDAC. Ultimately this review analyses whether the microbiome may be amenable to targeting and consequently altering the natural history of PDAC. View Full-Text
Keywords: pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; microbiome; mycobiome; FMT; immunology; biomarkers; chemotherapy; PDAC; pancreatic cancer pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma; microbiome; mycobiome; FMT; immunology; biomarkers; chemotherapy; PDAC; pancreatic cancer
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MDPI and ACS Style

Merali, N.; Chouari, T.; Kayani, K.; Rayner, C.J.; Jiménez, J.I.; Krell, J.; Giovannetti, E.; Bagwan, I.; Relph, K.; Rockall, T.A.; Dhillon, T.; Pandha, H.; Annels, N.E.; Frampton, A.E. A Comprehensive Review of the Current and Future Role of the Microbiome in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Cancers 2022, 14, 1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14041020

AMA Style

Merali N, Chouari T, Kayani K, Rayner CJ, Jiménez JI, Krell J, Giovannetti E, Bagwan I, Relph K, Rockall TA, Dhillon T, Pandha H, Annels NE, Frampton AE. A Comprehensive Review of the Current and Future Role of the Microbiome in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. Cancers. 2022; 14(4):1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14041020

Chicago/Turabian Style

Merali, Nabeel, Tarak Chouari, Kayani Kayani, Charles J. Rayner, José I. Jiménez, Jonathan Krell, Elisa Giovannetti, Izhar Bagwan, Kate Relph, Timothy A. Rockall, Tony Dhillon, Hardev Pandha, Nicola E. Annels, and Adam E. Frampton. 2022. "A Comprehensive Review of the Current and Future Role of the Microbiome in Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma" Cancers 14, no. 4: 1020. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers14041020

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