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Review

Diet as a Potential Moderator for Genome Stability and Immune Response in Pediatric Leukemia

1
Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6H 3V4, Canada
2
Michael Cuccione Childhood Cancer Research Program, BC Children’s Hospital, Vancouver, BC V5Z 4H4, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2021, 13(3), 413; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030413
Received: 8 January 2021 / Revised: 15 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 22 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Diet and Anti-Cancer Immune Response)
Pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most prevalent cancer affecting children in developed societies. Here, we review the role of diet in control of the incidence and progression of childhood ALL. Prenatally, ALL risk is associated with higher birthweights of newborns, suggesting that ALL begins to evolve in-utero. Indeed, maternal diet influences the fetal genome and immune development. Postnatally, breastfeeding associates with decreased risk of ALL development. Finally, for the ALL-affected child, certain dietary regimens that impact the hormonal environment may impede disease progression. Improved understanding of the dietary regulation of hormones and immunity may inform better approaches to predict, protect, and ultimately save children afflicted with pediatric leukemia.
Pediatric leukemias are the most prevalent cancers affecting children in developed societies, with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) being the most common subtype. As diet is a likely modulator of many diseases, this review focuses on the potential for diet to influence the incidence and progression of childhood ALL. In particular, the potential effect of diets on genome stability and immunity during the prenatal and postnatal stages of early childhood development are discussed. Maternal diet plays an integral role in shaping the bodily composition of the newborn, and thus may influence fetal genome stability and immune system development. Indeed, higher birth weights of newborns are associated with increased risk of ALL, which suggests in-utero biology may shape the evolution of preleukemic clones. Postnatally, the ingestion of maternal breastmilk both nourishes the infant, and provides essential components that strengthen and educate the developing immune system. Consistently, breast-feeding associates with decreased risk of ALL development. For children already suffering from ALL, certain dietary regimens have been proposed. These regimens, which have been validated in both animals and humans, alter the internal hormonal environment. Thus, hormonal regulation by diet may shape childhood metabolism and immunity in a manner that is detrimental to the evolution or expansion of preleukemic and leukemic ALL clones. View Full-Text
Keywords: diet; pediatric leukemia; genome; immune response diet; pediatric leukemia; genome; immune response
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MDPI and ACS Style

Wang, S.; Maxwell, C.A.; Akella, N.M. Diet as a Potential Moderator for Genome Stability and Immune Response in Pediatric Leukemia. Cancers 2021, 13, 413. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030413

AMA Style

Wang S, Maxwell CA, Akella NM. Diet as a Potential Moderator for Genome Stability and Immune Response in Pediatric Leukemia. Cancers. 2021; 13(3):413. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030413

Chicago/Turabian Style

Wang, Shanshan, Christopher A. Maxwell, and Neha M. Akella 2021. "Diet as a Potential Moderator for Genome Stability and Immune Response in Pediatric Leukemia" Cancers 13, no. 3: 413. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13030413

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