Genomic alterations and aberrant DNA damage signaling are hallmarks of ovarian cancer (OC), the leading cause of mortality among gynecological cancers worldwide. Owing to the lack of specific symptoms and late-stage diagnosis, survival chances of patients are significantly reduced. Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors and replication stress response inhibitors present attractive therapeutic strategies for OC. Recent research has focused on ovarian cancer-associated microRNAs (miRNAs) that play significant regulatory roles in various cellular processes. While miRNAs have been shown to participate in regulation of tumorigenesis and drug responses through modulating the DNA damage response (DDR), little is known about their potential influence on sensitivity to chemotherapy. The main objective of this review is to summarize recent findings on the utility of miRNAs as cancer biomarkers, in particular, ovarian cancer, and their regulation of DDR or modified replication stress response proteins. We further discuss the suppressive and promotional effects of various miRNAs on ovarian cancer and their participation in cell cycle disturbance, response to DNA damage, and therapeutic functions in multiple cancer types, with particular focus on ovarian cancer. Improved understanding of the mechanisms by which miRNAs regulate drug resistance should facilitate the development of effective combination therapies for ovarian cancer.
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