Since the discovery of spliceosome mutations in myeloid malignancies, abnormal pre-mRNA splicing, which has been well studied in various cancers, has attracted novel interest in hematology. However, despite the common occurrence of spliceosome mutations in myelo-proliferative neoplasms (MPN), not much is known regarding the characterization and mechanisms of splicing anomalies in MPN. In this article, we review the current scientific literature regarding “splicing and myeloproliferative neoplasms”. We first analyse the clinical series reporting spliceosome mutations in MPN and their clinical correlates. We then present the current knowledge about molecular mechanisms by which these mutations participate in the pathogenesis of MPN or other myeloid malignancies. Beside spliceosome mutations, splicing anomalies have been described in myeloproliferative neoplasms, as well as in acute myeloid leukemias, a dreadful complication of these chronic diseases. Based on splicing anomalies reported in chronic myelogenous leukemia as well as in acute leukemia, and the mechanisms presiding splicing deregulation, we propose that abnormal splicing plays a major role in the evolution of myeloproliferative neoplasms and may be the target of specific therapeutic strategies.
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