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Combined C-Reactive Protein and Novel Inflammatory Parameters as a Predictor in Cancer—What Can We Learn from the Hematological Experience?

1
Section for Hematology, Institute of Clinical Science, Faculty of Medicine, University of Bergen, 5007 Bergen, Norway
2
Section for Hematology, Department of Medicine, Haukeland University Hospital, 5021 Bergen, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Cancers 2020, 12(7), 1966; https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071966
Received: 19 June 2020 / Revised: 13 July 2020 / Accepted: 15 July 2020 / Published: 19 July 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue C-Reactive Protein in Cancer)
The acute phase reaction is a systemic response to acute or chronic inflammation. The serum level of C-reactive protein (CRP) is the only acute phase biomarker widely used in routine clinical practice, including its uses for prognostics and therapy monitoring in cancer patients. Although Interleukin 6 (IL6) is a main trigger of the acute phase reactions, a series of acute phase reactants can contribute (e.g., other members in IL6 family or IL1 subfamily, and tumor necrosis factor α). However, the experience from patients receiving intensive chemotherapy for hematological malignancies has shown that, besides CRP, other biomarkers (e.g., cytokines, soluble cytokine receptors, soluble adhesion molecules) also have altered systemic levels as a part of the acute phase reaction in these immunocompromised patients. Furthermore, CRP and white blood cell counts can serve as a dual prognostic predictor in solid tumors and hematological malignancies. Recent studies also suggest that biomarker profiles as well as alternative inflammatory mediators should be further developed to optimize the predictive utility in cancer patients. Finally, the experience from allogeneic stem cell transplantation suggests that selected acute phase reactants together with specific markers of organ damages are useful for predicting or diagnosing graft versus host disease. Acute phase proteins may also be useful to identify patients (at risk of) developing severe immune-mediated toxicity after anticancer immunotherapy. To conclude, future studies of acute phase predictors in human malignancies should not only investigate the conventional inflammatory mediators (e.g., CRP, white blood cell counts) but also combinations of novel inflammatory parameters with specific markers of organ damages. View Full-Text
Keywords: inflammation; cancer; prognosis; acute phase reaction; C-reactive protein; leukocyte counts; monocyte; cytokine; neutropenia; allogeneic stem cell transplantation inflammation; cancer; prognosis; acute phase reaction; C-reactive protein; leukocyte counts; monocyte; cytokine; neutropenia; allogeneic stem cell transplantation
MDPI and ACS Style

Bruserud, Ø.; Aarstad, H.H.; Tvedt, T.H.A. Combined C-Reactive Protein and Novel Inflammatory Parameters as a Predictor in Cancer—What Can We Learn from the Hematological Experience? Cancers 2020, 12, 1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071966

AMA Style

Bruserud Ø, Aarstad HH, Tvedt THA. Combined C-Reactive Protein and Novel Inflammatory Parameters as a Predictor in Cancer—What Can We Learn from the Hematological Experience? Cancers. 2020; 12(7):1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071966

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bruserud, Øystein; Aarstad, Helene H.; Tvedt, Tor H.A. 2020. "Combined C-Reactive Protein and Novel Inflammatory Parameters as a Predictor in Cancer—What Can We Learn from the Hematological Experience?" Cancers 12, no. 7: 1966. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12071966

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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