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Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching and Electroless Deposition for Fabrication of Hard X-ray Pd/Si Zone Plates

1
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Biomedical and X-ray Physics, Albanova University Center, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
2
MAX IV Laboratory, Lund University, 22 100 Lund, Sweden
3
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Micromachines 2020, 11(3), 301; https://doi.org/10.3390/mi11030301
Received: 28 February 2020 / Revised: 9 March 2020 / Accepted: 10 March 2020 / Published: 13 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Micro- and Nano-Fabrication by Metal Assisted Chemical Etching)
Zone plates are diffractive optics commonly used in X-ray microscopes. Here, we present a wet-chemical approach for fabricating high aspect ratio Pd/Si zone plate optics aimed at the hard X-ray regime. A Si zone plate mold is fabricated via metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) and further metalized with Pd via electroless deposition (ELD). MACE results in vertical Si zones with high aspect ratios. The observed MACE rate with our zone plate design is 700 nm/min. The ELD metallization yields a Pd density of 10.7 g/cm 3 , a value slightly lower than the theoretical density of 12 g/cm 3 . Fabricated zone plates have a grid design, 1:1 line-to-space-ratio, 30 nm outermost zone width, and an aspect ratio of 30:1. At 9 keV X-ray energy, the zone plate device shows a first order diffraction efficiency of 1.9%, measured at the MAX IV NanoMAX beamline. With this work, the possibility is opened to fabricate X-ray zone plates with low-cost etching and metallization methods. View Full-Text
Keywords: X-ray diffractive optics; zone plate; high aspect ratio nanostructures; metal-assisted chemical etching; electroless deposition X-ray diffractive optics; zone plate; high aspect ratio nanostructures; metal-assisted chemical etching; electroless deposition
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akan, R.; Frisk, T.; Lundberg, F.; Ohlin, H.; Johansson, U.; Li, K.; Sakdinawat, A.; Vogt, U. Metal-Assisted Chemical Etching and Electroless Deposition for Fabrication of Hard X-ray Pd/Si Zone Plates. Micromachines 2020, 11, 301.

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