Next Article in Journal
Spider Neurotoxins, Short Linear Cationic Peptides and Venom Protein Classification Improved by an Automated Competition between Exhaustive Profile HMM Classifiers
Previous Article in Journal
Interaction between Various Apple Procyanidin and Staphylococcal Enterotoxin A and Their Inhibitory Effects on Toxin Activity
Article Menu
Issue 8 (August) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessEditor’s ChoiceArticle
Toxins 2017, 9(8), 244;

Enzymatic and Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Bothrops lanceolatus Venom: Relevance for Envenomation

Prevor Laboratory, Moulin de Verville, Valmondois 95760, France
Immunochemistry Laboratory, Butantan Institute, São Paulo 05503-900, Brazil
Trousseau Hospital, Paris 75012, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Syed A. Ali
Received: 2 July 2017 / Revised: 27 July 2017 / Accepted: 31 July 2017 / Published: 7 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
PDF [2741 KB, uploaded 8 August 2017]


Bothrops lanceolatus, commonly named ‘Fer-de-Lance’, is an endemic snake of the French Caribbean Island of Martinique. Envenomations by B. lanceolatus present clinical aspects characterized by systemic thrombotic syndrome and important local inflammation, involving edema and pain but limited hemorrhage. To investigate mechanisms of venom-induced inflammation, B. lanceolatus venom was characterized, its cross-reactivity with bothropic antivenom explored, its cytotoxicity on human keratinocytes and vascular cells, and the production of cytokines and chemokines were analyzed. We used electrophoretic separation, zymography, colorimetric or fluorimetric enzymatic assays, and immunochemical assays. Therapeutic South American bothropic antivenom cross-reacted with B. lanceolatus venom and completely or partially abolished its PLA2, hyaluronidase, and proteolytic activities, as well as its cytotoxicity for keratinocytes. The substrate specificity of B. lanceolatus venom proteases was emphasized. B. lanceolatus venom cytotoxicity was compared to the B. jararaca venom. Both venoms were highly cytotoxic for keratinocytes (HaCaT), whereas B. lanceolatus venom showed particularly low toxicity for endothelial cells (EAhy926). Patterns of cytokine and chemokine production by cells exposed to the venoms were highly pro-inflammatory. Thus, the results presented here show that B. lanceolatus venom toxins share important antigenic similarities with South American Bothrops species toxins, although their proteases have acquired particular substrate specificity. Moreover, the venom displays important cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory action on human cell types such as keratinocytes and endothelial cells, which are important players in the local and systemic compartments affected by the envenomation. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venom; Bothrops lanceolatus; toxic activities; antivenom snake venom; Bothrops lanceolatus; toxic activities; antivenom

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Delafontaine, M.; Villas-Boas, I.M.; Mathieu, L.; Josset, P.; Blomet, J.; Tambourgi, D.V. Enzymatic and Pro-Inflammatory Activities of Bothrops lanceolatus Venom: Relevance for Envenomation. Toxins 2017, 9, 244.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top