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Toxins 2017, 9(11), 356;

Chemodenervation of the Larynx

Department of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, 90 Bergen Street, Suite 8100, Newark, NJ 07103, USA
New York Center for Voice and Swallowing Disorders, New York, NY 10019, USA
Head and Neck Surgical Group, New York, NY 10019, USA
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Columbia University College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York, NY 10032, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Jennifer G. Goldman and Codrin Lungu
Received: 27 September 2017 / Revised: 30 October 2017 / Accepted: 31 October 2017 / Published: 2 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Muscle Selection for BoNT)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1418 KB, uploaded 2 November 2017]   |  


Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) has existed for thousands of years; however, it was not medically utilized until investigations into its therapeutic use began in sincerity during the late 1970s and 1980s. This, coupled with the reclassification of spasmodic dysphonia as a focal dystonia, led to the use of chemodenervation for this disorder, which has since become a refined technique. Indeed, due to its safety and efficacy, BoNT has been investigated in multiple neurolaryngology disorders, including spasmodic dysphonia, vocal tremor, and muscle tension dysphonia. BoNT has been shown to be a useful and safe adjunct in the treatment for these disorders and may reduce or eliminate oral pharmacotherapy and/or prevent the need for a surgical intervention. We present the historical background, development, proposed mechanisms of action, uses, and techniques for administering BoNT for laryngeal disorders, with a particular focus on spasmodic dysphonia. View Full-Text
Keywords: spasmodic dysphonia; vocal tremor; laryngeal tremor; muscle tension dysphonia; chemodenervation; botulinum toxin spasmodic dysphonia; vocal tremor; laryngeal tremor; muscle tension dysphonia; chemodenervation; botulinum toxin

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Kaye, R.; Blitzer, A. Chemodenervation of the Larynx. Toxins 2017, 9, 356.

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