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Toxins 2017, 9(10), 310; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins9100310

The Influence of Resiniferatoxin (RTX) and Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the Distribution, Relative Frequency, and Chemical Coding of Noradrenergic and Cholinergic Nerve Fibers Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder Wall

1
Department of Human Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, 10–082, Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Animal Anatomy, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 10-719, Olsztyn, Poland
3
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury, Warszawska 30, 10-082, Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Steve Peigneur
Received: 29 August 2017 / Revised: 20 September 2017 / Accepted: 1 October 2017 / Published: 3 October 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins in Drug Discovery and Pharmacology)
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Abstract

The present study investigated the influence of intravesically instilled resiniferatoxin (RTX) or tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the distribution, number, and chemical coding of noradrenergic and cholinergic nerve fibers (NF) supplying the urinary bladder in female pigs. Samples from the bladder wall were processed for double-labelling immunofluorescence with antibodies against cholinergic and noradrenergic markers and some other neurotransmitter substances. Both RTX and TTX caused a significant decrease in the number of cholinergic NF in the urinary bladder wall (in the muscle coat, submucosa, and beneath the urothelium). RTX instillation resulted in a decrease in the number of noradrenergic NF in the submucosa and urothelium, while TTX treatment caused a significant increase in the number of these axons in all the layers. The most remarkable changes in the chemical coding of the NF comprised a distinct decrease in the number of the cholinergic NF immunoreactive to CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide), nNOS (neuronal nitric oxide synthase), SOM (somatostatin) or VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide), and an increase in the number of noradrenergic NF immunopositive to GAL (galanin) or nNOS, both after RTX or TTX instillation. The present study is the first to suggest that both RTX and TTX can modify the number of noradrenergic and cholinergic NF supplying the porcine urinary bladder. View Full-Text
Keywords: resiniferatoxin; tetrodotoxin; nerve fibers; urinary bladder; immunohistochemistry; pig resiniferatoxin; tetrodotoxin; nerve fibers; urinary bladder; immunohistochemistry; pig
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Lepiarczyk, E.; Bossowska, A.; Kaleczyc, J.; Skowrońska, A.; Majewska, M.; Majewski, M.; Majewski, M. The Influence of Resiniferatoxin (RTX) and Tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the Distribution, Relative Frequency, and Chemical Coding of Noradrenergic and Cholinergic Nerve Fibers Supplying the Porcine Urinary Bladder Wall. Toxins 2017, 9, 310.

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