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Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature

Institute of Food Research, Norwich NR4 7UA, UK
Molecular and Translational Sciences Division, United States Army Medical Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, MD 21702, USA
National Reference Centre for Botulism, Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Rome 299-00161, Italy
Bureau of Microbial Hazards, Health Canada, Ottawa, ON K1A 0K9, Canada
Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Treviso 31020, Italy
Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706, USA
Área de Microbiología, Departamento de Patología, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Mendoza 450001, Argentina
Foodborne Toxin Detection and Prevention Research Unit, Western Regional Research Center, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Albany, CA 94710, USA
Department of Food Hygiene and Environmental Health, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Helsinki, Helsinki 00014, Finland
Robert Koch Institute, Berlin 13353, Germany
Applied Physics Laboratory, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
Los Alamos National Laboratories, Los Alamos, NM 87545, USA
National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30341, USA
Army Medical and Veterinary Research Center, Rome 00184, Italy
National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA
Institut Pasteur, Bactéries anaérobies et Toxines, Paris 75015, France
Biomedical Sciences Department, University of Padova, Padova 35131, Italy
Institut für Toxikologie, Medizinische Hochschule Hannover, Hannover 30623, Germany
National Institute for Biological Standards and Control, a Centre of Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency, Hertfordshire EN6 3QG, UK
Botulinum Research Center, Institute of Advanced Sciences, Dartmouth, MA 02747, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Cesare Montecucco
Toxins 2017, 9(1), 38;
Received: 9 December 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 7 January 2017 / Published: 18 January 2017
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
Botulinum neurotoxins are diverse proteins. They are currently represented by at least seven serotypes and more than 40 subtypes. New clostridial strains that produce novel neurotoxin variants are being identified with increasing frequency, which presents challenges when organizing the nomenclature surrounding these neurotoxins. Worldwide, researchers are faced with the possibility that toxins having identical sequences may be given different designations or novel toxins having unique sequences may be given the same designations on publication. In order to minimize these problems, an ad hoc committee consisting of over 20 researchers in the field of botulinum neurotoxin research was convened to discuss the clarification of the issues involved in botulinum neurotoxin nomenclature. This publication presents a historical overview of the issues and provides guidelines for botulinum neurotoxin subtype nomenclature in the future. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum; botulism; neurotoxins; subtypes; Clostridium botulinum; guidelines; nomenclature botulinum; botulism; neurotoxins; subtypes; Clostridium botulinum; guidelines; nomenclature
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peck, M.W.; Smith, T.J.; Anniballi, F.; Austin, J.W.; Bano, L.; Bradshaw, M.; Cuervo, P.; Cheng, L.W.; Derman, Y.; Dorner, B.G.; Fisher, A.; Hill, K.K.; Kalb, S.R.; Korkeala, H.; Lindström, M.; Lista, F.; Lúquez, C.; Mazuet, C.; Pirazzini, M.; Popoff, M.R.; Rossetto, O.; Rummel, A.; Sesardic, D.; Singh, B.R.; Stringer, S.C. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature. Toxins 2017, 9, 38.

AMA Style

Peck MW, Smith TJ, Anniballi F, Austin JW, Bano L, Bradshaw M, Cuervo P, Cheng LW, Derman Y, Dorner BG, Fisher A, Hill KK, Kalb SR, Korkeala H, Lindström M, Lista F, Lúquez C, Mazuet C, Pirazzini M, Popoff MR, Rossetto O, Rummel A, Sesardic D, Singh BR, Stringer SC. Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature. Toxins. 2017; 9(1):38.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peck, Michael W.; Smith, Theresa J.; Anniballi, Fabrizio; Austin, John W.; Bano, Luca; Bradshaw, Marite; Cuervo, Paula; Cheng, Luisa W.; Derman, Yagmur; Dorner, Brigitte G.; Fisher, Audrey; Hill, Karen K.; Kalb, Suzanne R.; Korkeala, Hannu; Lindström, Miia; Lista, Florigio; Lúquez, Carolina; Mazuet, Christelle; Pirazzini, Marco; Popoff, Michel R.; Rossetto, Ornella; Rummel, Andreas; Sesardic, Dorothea; Singh, Bal R.; Stringer, Sandra C. 2017. "Historical Perspectives and Guidelines for Botulinum Neurotoxin Subtype Nomenclature" Toxins 9, no. 1: 38.

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