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Toxins 2017, 9(1), 36;

Novel Aflatoxin-Degrading Enzyme from Bacillus shackletonii L7

Institute of Food Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1 Nongda South Road, Xibeiwang Town, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
Key Laboratory of Agro-products Processing, Ministry of Agriculture, 1 Nongda South Road, Xibeiwang Town, Haidian District, Beijing 100193, China
Shenyang Institute of Engineering, No.18 Puchang Road, Shenbei New District, Shenyang 110136, China
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Presently address: College of Life Sciences, Hubei University, Wuhan 430062, China.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Ting Zhou
Received: 22 September 2016 / Revised: 10 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
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Food and feed contamination by aflatoxin (AF)B1 has adverse economic and health consequences. AFB1 degradation by microorganisms or microbial enzymes provides a promising preventive measure. To this end, the present study tested 43 bacterial isolates collected from maize, rice, and soil samples for AFB1-reducing activity. The higher activity was detected in isolate L7, which was identified as Bacillus shackletonii. L7 reduced AFB1, AFB2, and AFM1 levels by 92.1%, 84.1%, and 90.4%, respectively, after 72 h at 37 °C. The L7 culture supernatant degraded more AFB1 than viable cells and cell extracts; and the degradation activity was reduced from 77.9% to 15.3% in the presence of proteinase K and sodium dodecyl sulphate. A thermostable enzyme purified from the boiled supernatant was designated as Bacillus aflatoxin-degrading enzyme (BADE). An overall 9.55-fold purification of BADE with a recovery of 39.92% and an activity of 3.85 × 103 U·mg−1 was obtained using chromatography on DEAE-Sepharose. BADE had an estimated molecular mass of 22 kDa and exhibited the highest activity at 70 °C and pH 8.0, which was enhanced by Cu2+ and inhibited by Zn2+, Mn2+, Mg2+, and Li+. BADE is the major protein involved in AFB1 detoxification. This is the first report of a BADE isolated from B. shackletonii, which has potential applications in the detoxification of aflatoxins during food and feed processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin-degrading enzyme; biodegradation; Bacillus shackletonii; purification aflatoxin B1; aflatoxin-degrading enzyme; biodegradation; Bacillus shackletonii; purification

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Xu, L.; Eisa Ahmed, M.F.; Sangare, L.; Zhao, Y.; Selvaraj, J.N.; Xing, F.; Wang, Y.; Yang, H.; Liu, Y. Novel Aflatoxin-Degrading Enzyme from Bacillus shackletonii L7. Toxins 2017, 9, 36.

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