Next Article in Journal
Identification and Characterization of the HicAB Toxin-Antitoxin System in the Opportunistic Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa
Next Article in Special Issue
The Spider Venom Peptide Lycosin-II Has Potent Antimicrobial Activity against Clinically Isolated Bacteria
Previous Article in Journal
The Response of Selected Triticum spp. Genotypes with Different Ploidy Levels to Head Blight Caused by Fusarium culmorum (W.G.Smith) Sacc.
Previous Article in Special Issue
δ-Ctenitoxin-Pn1a, a Peptide from Phoneutria nigriventer Spider Venom, Shows Antinociceptive Effect Involving Opioid and Cannabinoid Systems, in Rats
Open AccessReview

Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms

1
Institute of Natural Medicine, University of Toyama, Toyama 930-0194, Toyama, Japan
2
Faculty of Agriculture, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya 321-8505, Tochigi, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Richard Lewis
Toxins 2016, 8(4), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8040114
Received: 30 January 2016 / Revised: 5 April 2016 / Accepted: 8 April 2016 / Published: 18 April 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arthropod Venoms)
Solitary wasps paralyze insects or spiders with stinging venom and feed the paralyzed preys to their larva. Accordingly, the venoms should contain a variety of constituents acting on nervous systems. However, only a few solitary wasp venoms have been chemically studied despite thousands of species inhabiting the planet. We have surveyed bioactive substances in solitary wasp venoms found in Japan and discovered a variety of novel bioactive peptides. Pompilidotoxins (PMTXs), in the venoms of the pompilid wasps Anoplius samariensis and Batozonellus maculifrons, are small peptides consisting of 13 amino acids without a disulfide bond. PMTXs slowed Na+ channel inactivation, in particular against neuronal type Na+ channels, and were rather selective to the Nav1.6 channel. Mastoparan-like cytolytic and antimicrobial peptides are the major components of eumenine wasp venoms. They are rich in hydrophobic and basic amino acids, adopting a α-helical secondary structure, and showing mast cell degranulating, antimicrobial and hemolytic activities. The venom of the spider wasp Cyphononyx fulvognathus contained four bradykinin-related peptides. They are hyperalgesic and, dependent on the structure, differently associated with B1 or B2 receptors. Further survey led to the isolation of leucomyosuppressin-like FMRFamide peptides from the venoms of the digger wasps Sphex argentatus and Isodontia harmandi. These results of peptide toxins in solitary wasp venoms from our studies are summarized. View Full-Text
Keywords: solitary wasp; peptide toxin; neurotoxin; cytolytic peptide; bradykinin-related peptide; FMRFamide neuropeptide solitary wasp; peptide toxin; neurotoxin; cytolytic peptide; bradykinin-related peptide; FMRFamide neuropeptide
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Konno, K.; Kazuma, K.; Nihei, K.-I. Peptide Toxins in Solitary Wasp Venoms. Toxins 2016, 8, 114.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop