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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior

1
Research Center of Veterinary Toxicology (CEPTOX), Department of Pathology, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Pirassununga 13635-900, Brazil
2
United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS), Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, 1150 E. 1400 N., Logan, UT 84341, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Kevin Welch
Toxins 2016, 8(3), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8030074
Received: 9 February 2016 / Revised: 7 March 2016 / Accepted: 9 March 2016 / Published: 16 March 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Toxicity of Natural Alkaloids)
Ipomoea carnea is a toxic plant found in Brazil and other tropical and subtropical countries and often causes poisoning of livestock. The plant contains the alkaloids swainsonine and calystegines, which inhibit key cellular enzymes and cause systematic cell death. This study evaluated the behavioral effects of prenatal ingestion of this plant on dams and their kids. Twenty-four pregnant goats were randomly allocated into four treatment groups and received the following doses (g/kg BW) of fresh I. carnea: 0 (control group), 1.0 (IC1), 3.0 (IC3), and 5.0 (IC5) from day 27 of gestation until parturition. Dam and kid bonding and behavior were evaluated by several tests, immediately after birth until six weeks of age. Dams from IC3 and IC5 groups spent less time paying attention to the newborn. There was a lack of maternal-infant bonding due to I. carnea intoxication. Kids from treated dams had difficulty in standing, suckling, and in recognizing their mother hours after birth. I. carnea can also compromise the kids’ ability to learn and to retain spatial memory. We suggest that kids from pregnant goats given I. carnea during gestation have significant behavioral alterations and developmental delays that may compromise their survival. View Full-Text
Keywords: swainsonine; reproductive toxicology; neuroteratology; goats; morning glory; I. carnea swainsonine; reproductive toxicology; neuroteratology; goats; morning glory; I. carnea
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gotardo, A.T.; Pfister, J.A.; Raspantini, P.C.F.; Górniak, S.L. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior. Toxins 2016, 8, 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8030074

AMA Style

Gotardo AT, Pfister JA, Raspantini PCF, Górniak SL. Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior. Toxins. 2016; 8(3):74. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8030074

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gotardo, André T.; Pfister, James A.; Raspantini, Paulo C.F.; Górniak, Silvana L. 2016. "Maternal Ingestion of Ipomoea carnea: Effects on Goat-Kid Bonding and Behavior" Toxins 8, no. 3: 74. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins8030074

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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