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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3297-3308;

Zearalenone and Its Derivatives α-Zearalenol and β-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage

Departamento de Zootecnia e Desenvolvimento Agrossocioambiental Sustentável, Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Rua Vital Brazil n.64, Niterói 24230-340, RJ, Brazil
CEB (Centre of Biological Engineering), University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, Braga 4710-057, Portugal
Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Escola de Veterinária, Belo Horizonte 31270-901, MG, Brazil
Departamento de Microbiologia e Imunología Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Instituto de Veterinária, Rodovia BR 465 Km 7, Seropédica 23890-000, RJ, Brazil
Departamento de Microbiología e Inmunología, Universidad Nacional de Río Cuarto, Ruta 36 km. 601, Río Cuarto 5800, Córdoba, Argentina
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paola Battilani
Received: 6 July 2015 / Revised: 4 August 2015 / Accepted: 7 August 2015 / Published: 20 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Understanding Mycotoxin Occurrence in Food and Feed Chains)
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Zearalenone (ZEA) and its derivatives are mycotoxins with estrogenic effects on mammals. The biotransformation for ZEA in animals involves the formation of two major metabolites, α- and β-zearalenol (α-ZOL and β-ZOL), which are subsequently conjugated with glucuronic acid. The capability of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains isolated from silage to eliminate ZEA and its derivatives α-ZOL and β-ZOL was investigated as, also, the mechanisms involved. Strains were grown on Yeast Extract-Peptone-Dextrose medium supplemented with the mycotoxins and their elimination from medium was quantified over time by HPLC-FL. A significant effect on the concentration of ZEA was observed, as all the tested strains were able to eliminate more than 90% of the mycotoxin from the culture medium in two days. The observed elimination was mainly due to ZEA biotransformation into β-ZOL (53%) and α-ZOL (8%) rather than to its adsorption to yeast cells walls. Further, the biotransformation of α-ZOL was not observed but a small amount of β-ZOL (6%) disappeared from culture medium. ZEA biotransformation by yeasts may not be regarded as a full detoxification process because both main end-products are still estrogenic. Nonetheless, it was observed that the biotransformation favors the formation of β-ZOL which is less estrogenic than ZEA and α-ZOL. This metabolic effect is only possible if active strains are used as feed additives and may play a role in the detoxification performance of products with viable S. cerevisiae cells. View Full-Text
Keywords: ZEA; α-ZOL; β-ZOL; detoxification; adsorption; Saccharomyces cerevisiae ZEA; α-ZOL; β-ZOL; detoxification; adsorption; Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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Keller, L.; Abrunhosa, L.; Keller, K.; Rosa, C.A.; Cavaglieri, L.; Venâncio, A. Zearalenone and Its Derivatives α-Zearalenol and β-Zearalenol Decontamination by Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strains Isolated from Bovine Forage. Toxins 2015, 7, 3297-3308.

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