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Toxins 2015, 7(8), 3167-3178;

Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination

United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Bacteriology Division, 1425 Porter Street, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shihui Liu
Received: 29 July 2015 / Revised: 8 August 2015 / Accepted: 11 August 2015 / Published: 17 August 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Anthrax Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [387 KB, uploaded 17 August 2015]   |  


The interaction of anthrax toxin or toxin components with B. anthracis spores has been demonstrated. Germinating spores can produce significant amounts of toxin components very soon after the initiation of germination. In this review, we will summarize the work performed that has led to our understanding of toxin and spore interactions and discuss the complexities associated with these interactions View Full-Text
Keywords: anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; spores; anthrax toxins; PA; germination anthrax; Bacillus anthracis; spores; anthrax toxins; PA; germination

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Cote, C.K.; Welkos, S.L. Anthrax Toxins in Context of Bacillus anthracis Spores and Spore Germination. Toxins 2015, 7, 3167-3178.

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