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Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A

Department of Surgery, University Hospital "Agostino Gemelli", Largo Agostino Gemelli 8, 00168 Rome, Italy
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Bahman Jabbari
Toxins 2015, 7(6), 1882-1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7061882
Received: 15 April 2015 / Revised: 10 May 2015 / Accepted: 21 May 2015 / Published: 29 May 2015
(This article belongs to the Collection Botulinum Toxins on Human Pain)
Botulinum toxin A inhibits neuromuscular transmission. It has become a drug with many indications. The range of clinical applications has grown to encompass several neurological and non-neurological conditions. One of the most recent achievements in the field is the observation that botulinum toxin A provides benefit in diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. Although toxin blocks cholinergic nerve endings in the autonomic nervous system, it has also been shown that it does not block non-adrenergic non-cholinergic responses mediated by nitric oxide. This has promoted further interest in using botulinum toxin A as a treatment for overactive smooth muscles and sphincters. The introduction of this therapy has made the treatment of several clinical conditions easier, in the outpatient setting, at a lower cost and without permanent complications. This review presents current data on the use of botulinum toxin A in the treatment of pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract. View Full-Text
Keywords: anus; physiopathology; autonomic nervous system diseases; biliary diseases; botulinum toxin; therapeutic use; chronic constipation; enteric nervous system; esophageal achalasia; esophageal diseases; exocytosis; fissure-in-ano; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal motility; membrane fusion; membrane proteins; neuromuscular agents; obesity; pain; spasm anus; physiopathology; autonomic nervous system diseases; biliary diseases; botulinum toxin; therapeutic use; chronic constipation; enteric nervous system; esophageal achalasia; esophageal diseases; exocytosis; fissure-in-ano; gastric emptying; gastrointestinal motility; membrane fusion; membrane proteins; neuromuscular agents; obesity; pain; spasm
MDPI and ACS Style

Brisinda, G.; Sivestrini, N.; Bianco, G.; Maria, G. Treatment of Gastrointestinal Sphincters Spasms with Botulinum Toxin A. Toxins 2015, 7, 1882-1916.

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