Next Article in Journal
Chronic Exposure to Deoxynivalenol Has No Influence on the Oral Bioavailability of Fumonisin B1 in Broiler Chickens
Next Article in Special Issue
Cholera Toxin B: One Subunit with Many Pharmaceutical Applications
Previous Article in Journal
Study of the Cytotoxic Effects of the New Synthetic Isothiocyanate CM9 and Its Fullerene Derivative on Human T-Leukemia Cells
Previous Article in Special Issue
Recent Insights into Clostridium perfringens Beta-Toxin
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(2), 553-559;

Sulfasalazine Attenuates Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Immune Responses

Department of Immunology, Molecular Translational Sciences Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD 21702-5011, USA
Academic Editor: Yukako Fujinaga
Received: 4 December 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2015 / Published: 13 February 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterotoxins: Microbial Proteins and Host Cell Dysregulation)
PDF [646 KB, uploaded 13 February 2015]


Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) and related exotoxins are important virulence factors produced by Staphylococcus aureus as they cause human diseases such as food poisoning and toxic shock. These toxins bind directly to cells of the immune system resulting in hyperactivation of both T lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. The excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines from these cells mediates the toxic effects of SEB. This study examined the inhibitory activities of an anti-inflammatory drug, sulfasalazine, on SEB-stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Sulfasalazine dose-dependently inhibited tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 1 (IL-1) β, IL-2, IL-6, interferon γ (IFNγ), and various chemotactic cytokines from SEB-stimulated human PBMC. Sulfasalazine also potently blocked SEB-induced T cell proliferation and NFκB activation. These results suggest that sulfasalazine might be useful in mitigating the toxic effects of SEB by blocking SEB-induced host inflammatory cascade and signaling pathways. View Full-Text
Keywords: staphylococcal enterotoxin B; inflammatory cytokines; sulfasalazine staphylococcal enterotoxin B; inflammatory cytokines; sulfasalazine

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Krakauer, T. Sulfasalazine Attenuates Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced Immune Responses. Toxins 2015, 7, 553-559.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top