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Article

Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction

1
Department of Biomedical Sciences, University of Padua, Via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy
2
Institute for Neuroscience, National Research Council, Via U. Bassi 58/B, 35131 Padova, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Wolfgang Wüster
Toxins 2015, 7(12), 5322-5336; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7124887
Received: 23 October 2015 / Revised: 20 November 2015 / Accepted: 30 November 2015 / Published: 8 December 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) and some animal neurotoxins (β-Bungarotoxin, β-Btx, from elapid snakes and α-Latrotoxin, α-Ltx, from black widow spiders) are pre-synaptic neurotoxins that paralyse motor axon terminals with similar clinical outcomes in patients. However, their mechanism of action is different, leading to a largely-different duration of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) blockade. BoNTs induce a long-lasting paralysis without nerve terminal degeneration acting via proteolytic cleavage of SNARE proteins, whereas animal neurotoxins cause an acute and complete degeneration of motor axon terminals, followed by a rapid recovery. In this study, the injection of animal neurotoxins in mice muscles previously paralyzed by BoNT/A or /B accelerates the recovery of neurotransmission, as assessed by electrophysiology and morphological analysis. This result provides a proof of principle that, by causing the complete degeneration, reabsorption, and regeneration of a paralysed nerve terminal, one could favour the recovery of function of a biochemically- or genetically-altered motor axon terminal. These observations might be relevant to dying-back neuropathies, where pathological changes first occur at the neuromuscular junction and then progress proximally toward the cell body. View Full-Text
Keywords: botulinum neurotoxins; animal neurotoxins; nerve terminals degeneration; mouse; DAS assay; paralysis; neuroexocytosis botulinum neurotoxins; animal neurotoxins; nerve terminals degeneration; mouse; DAS assay; paralysis; neuroexocytosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Duregotti, E.; Zanetti, G.; Scorzeto, M.; Megighian, A.; Montecucco, C.; Pirazzini, M.; Rigoni, M. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction. Toxins 2015, 7, 5322-5336. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7124887

AMA Style

Duregotti E, Zanetti G, Scorzeto M, Megighian A, Montecucco C, Pirazzini M, Rigoni M. Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction. Toxins. 2015; 7(12):5322-5336. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7124887

Chicago/Turabian Style

Duregotti, Elisa, Giulia Zanetti, Michele Scorzeto, Aram Megighian, Cesare Montecucco, Marco Pirazzini, and Michela Rigoni. 2015. "Snake and Spider Toxins Induce a Rapid Recovery of Function of Botulinum Neurotoxin Paralysed Neuromuscular Junction" Toxins 7, no. 12: 5322-5336. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins7124887

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