Next Article in Journal
Cytotoxic Activity and Antiproliferative Effects of Crude Skin Secretion from Physalaemus nattereri (Anura: Leptodactylidae) on in vitro Melanoma Cells
Previous Article in Journal
Passive Immunotherapy Protects against Enteric Invasion and Lethal Sepsis in a Murine Model of Gastrointestinal Anthrax
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2015, 7(10), 3977-3988;

Study of Adsorption and Flocculation Properties of Natural Clays to Remove Prorocentrum lima

Departamento de Farmacología, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
Departamento de Fisiología Animal, Facultad de Veterinaria, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Lugo 27002, Spain
PeloidesTermales S.L., Fonte das Abelleriras s/n. Edificio CITEXVI, Vigo 36310, Spain
Caolines de Vimianzo S.A.U., (CAVISA), Cerbán-Castrelo 19, Vimianzo A Coruña 15129, Spain
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Paul V. Zimba
Received: 30 July 2015 / Revised: 20 September 2015 / Accepted: 21 September 2015 / Published: 29 September 2015
(This article belongs to the Section Marine and Freshwater Toxins)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1728 KB, uploaded 29 September 2015]   |  


High accumulations of phytoplankton species that produce toxins are referred to as harmful algal blooms (HABs). HABs represent one of the most important sources of contamination in marine environments, as well as a serious threat to public health, fisheries, aquaculture-based industries, and tourism. Therefore, methods effectively controlling HABs with minimal impact on marine ecology are required. Marine dinoflagellates of the genera Dinophysis and Prorocentrum are representative producers of okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxins responsible for the diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) which is a human intoxication caused by the consumption of shellfish that bioaccumulate those toxins. In this work we explore the use of natural clay for removing Prorocentrum lima. We evaluate the adsorption properties of clays in seawater containing the dinoflagellates. The experimental results confirmed the cell removal through the flocculation of algal and mineral particles leading to the formation of aggregates, which rapidly settle and further entrain cells during their descent. Moreover, the microscopy images of the samples enable one to observe the clays in aggregates of two or more cells where the mineral particles were bound to the outer membranes of the dinoflagellates. Therefore, this preliminary data offers promising results to use these clays for the mitigation of HABs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Prorocentrum lima; dinoflagellate; clay; adsorption; flocculation Prorocentrum lima; dinoflagellate; clay; adsorption; flocculation

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Louzao, M.C.; Abal, P.; Fernández, D.A.; Vieytes, M.R.; Legido, J.L.; Gómez, C.P.; Pais, J.; Botana, L.M. Study of Adsorption and Flocculation Properties of Natural Clays to Remove Prorocentrum lima. Toxins 2015, 7, 3977-3988.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top