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Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: Is Naso-Sinus Fungal Biofilm the Culprit?

1
Plaza Infectious Disease and St. Luke's Hospital, 4320 Wornall Road, Suite 440, Kansas City, MO 64111, USA
2
Citrus Heights, CA 95610, USA
3
RealTime Laboratories, Carrollton, TX 75010, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2014, 6(1), 66-80; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins6010066
Received: 2 December 2013 / Revised: 16 December 2013 / Accepted: 17 December 2013 / Published: 24 December 2013
It has recently been demonstrated that patients who develop chronic illness after prior exposure to water damaged buildings (WDB) and mold have the presence of mycotoxins, which can be detected in the urine. We hypothesized that the mold may be harbored internally and continue to release and/or produce mycotoxins which contribute to ongoing chronic illness. The sinuses are the most likely candidate as a site for the internal mold and mycotoxin production. In this paper, we review the literature supporting this concept. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; biofilm; rhinosinusitis; chronic fatigue syndrome mycotoxin; biofilm; rhinosinusitis; chronic fatigue syndrome
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Brewer, J.H.; Thrasher, J.D.; Hooper, D. Chronic Illness Associated with Mold and Mycotoxins: Is Naso-Sinus Fungal Biofilm the Culprit? Toxins 2014, 6, 66-80.

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