Next Article in Journal
Interactions of PLA2-s from Vipera lebetina, Vipera berus berus and Naja naja oxiana Venom with Platelets, Bacterial and Cancer Cells
Next Article in Special Issue
Is Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Responsible for the Toxic Effects of Okadaic Acid in Animals?
Previous Article in Journal
Occurrence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Commercial Fish Feed: An Initial Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Differences in Susceptibility to Okadaic Acid, a Diarrhetic Shellfish Poisoning Toxin, between Male and Female Mice
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Toxins 2013, 5(1), 193-202;

Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation

Research Division for Life Science, Kumamoto Health Science University, 325 Izumi-machi, Kitaku, Kumamoto 861-5598, Japan
Research Division for Clinical Pharmacology, Medical Corporation, JuryoGroup, Kumamoto Kinoh Hospital, 6-8-1 Yamamuro, Kitaku, Kumamoto 860-8518, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 10 January 2013 / Accepted: 11 January 2013 / Published: 18 January 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxins from Aquatic Organisms)
Full-Text   |   PDF [480 KB, uploaded 18 January 2013]   |  


The amounts of puffer toxin (tetrodotoxin, TTX) extracted from the fresh and the traditional Japanese salted and fermented “Nukazuke and “Kasuzuke ovaries of Takifugu stictonotus (T. stictonotus) were quantitatively analyzed in the voltage-dependent sodium current (INa) recorded from mechanically dissociated single rat hippocampal CA1 neurons. The amount of TTX contained in “Nukazuke” and “Kasuzuke ovaries decreased to 1/50–1/90 times of that of fresh ovary during a salted and successive fermented period over a few years. The final toxin concentration after fermentation was almost close to the TTX level extracted from T. Rubripes” fresh muscle that is normally eaten. It was concluded that the fermented “Nukazuke and “Kasuzuke” ovaries of puffer fish T. Stictonotus are safe and harmless as food. View Full-Text
Keywords: puffer fish; Takifugu Stictonotus; fermented puffer’s ovary; tetrodotoxin; rat hippocampal neuron; sodium current puffer fish; Takifugu Stictonotus; fermented puffer’s ovary; tetrodotoxin; rat hippocampal neuron; sodium current

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Anraku, K.; Nonaka, K.; Yamaga, T.; Yamamoto, T.; Shin, M.-C.; Wakita, M.; Hamamoto, A.; Akaike, N. Removal of Toxin (Tetrodotoxin) from Puffer Ovary by Traditional Fermentation. Toxins 2013, 5, 193-202.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxins EISSN 2072-6651 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top