Next Article in Journal
Inhibition of Hemorragic Snake Venom Components: Old and New Approaches
Next Article in Special Issue
Real and Perceived Risks for Mycotoxin Contamination in Foods and Feeds: Challenges for Food Safety Control
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Development of an Electrochemical Immunosensor for Fumonisins Detection in Foods
 
 
Article

The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production

1
Department of Plant Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA
2
Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research Unit, USDA, ARS, Russell Research Center, P.O. Box 5677, Athens, GA, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2010, 2(4), 399-416; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins2040399
Received: 27 January 2010 / Revised: 15 March 2010 / Accepted: 19 March 2010 / Published: 24 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mycotoxin Research)
The black spored fungi of the subgenera Circumdata,the section Nigri (=Aspergillus niger group) is reviewed relative to their production of mycotoxins and their effects on plants as pathogens. Molecular methods have revealed more than 18 cryptic species, of which several have been characterized as potential mycotoxin producers. Others are defined as benign relative to their ability to produce mycotoxins. However, these characterizations are based on in vitro culture and toxins production. Several can produce the ochratoxins that are toxic to livestock, poultry, and humans. The black aspergilli produce rots of grapes, maize, and numerous other fruits and grain and they are generally viewed as post-harvest pathogens. Data are review to suggest that black aspergilli, as so many others, are symptomless endophytes. These fungi and their mycotoxins contaminate several major grains, foodstuffs, and products made from them such as wine, and coffee. Evidence is presented that the black aspergilli are producers of other classes of mycotoxins such as the fumonisins, which are known carcinogenic and known prior investigations as being produced by the Fusarium species. Three species are identified in U.S. maize and peanuts as symptomless endophytes, which suggests the potential for concern as pathogens and as food safety hazards. View Full-Text
Keywords: Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus section Nigri; black aspergilli; fumonisins; ochratoxins; mycotoxins Aspergillus niger; Aspergillus section Nigri; black aspergilli; fumonisins; ochratoxins; mycotoxins
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Palencia, E.R.; Hinton, D.M.; Bacon, C.W. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production. Toxins 2010, 2, 399-416. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins2040399

AMA Style

Palencia ER, Hinton DM, Bacon CW. The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production. Toxins. 2010; 2(4):399-416. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins2040399

Chicago/Turabian Style

Palencia, Edwin R., Dorothy M. Hinton, and Charles W. Bacon. 2010. "The Black Aspergillus Species of Maize and Peanuts and Their Potential for Mycotoxin Production" Toxins 2, no. 4: 399-416. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins2040399

Find Other Styles

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Only visits after 24 November 2015 are recorded.
Back to TopTop