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Impact of Season, Region, and Traditional Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxins and Fumonisins Contamination in the Rice Chain in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam

1
Department of Food Technology, Safety and Health, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
2
Faculty of Food Science Technology, Ho Chi Minh City University of Food Industry, 140 Le Trong Tan Street, Tay Thanh Ward, Tan Phu District, Ho Chi Minh City 700000, Vietnam
3
Department of Bioanalysis, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Ghent University, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 667; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090667
Received: 12 July 2021 / Revised: 12 August 2021 / Accepted: 19 August 2021 / Published: 18 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
The current study aimed to evaluate the impact of the crop season, cultivation region, and traditional pre- and post-harvest agricultural practices on mycotoxin contamination in the Mekong Delta rice chain of Vietnam. The results showed that aflatoxins (AFs) and fumonisins (FBs) were predominantly detected in both paddy (n = 91/184, 50%) and white rice (n = 9/46, 20%). Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1)-contaminated paddy samples (n = 3) exceeded the regulatory threshold (5 µg·kg−1). The contamination of paddy with AFs and FBs was not significantly different by growing seasons and cultivation localities. Evidently, in the winter–spring season, fumonisins frequently occurred in paddy planted in Can Tho, while AFs were found in paddy planted in regions Dong Thap and An Giang, and such toxins were absent in Can Tho. Furthermore, the selection of paddy varieties strongly impacted the occurrence of these toxins, especially AFs, for example, line DT8 and Jasmine were susceptible to AFs and FBs. In addition, poor pre- and post-harvest practices (such as crop residue-free fields, fertilizer application, unsanitary means of transport, delayed drying time) had an impact on the AFs and FBs contamination. Our findings can help to understand the dynamics of AFs and FBs in the rice chain in the Vietnamese Mekong Delta, leading to the mitigation of the contamination of AFs and FBs in rice. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; crop season; cultivation area; rice chain; pre-and post-harvest; Vietnam mycotoxins; crop season; cultivation area; rice chain; pre-and post-harvest; Vietnam
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MDPI and ACS Style

Phan, L.T.K.; Tran, T.M.; De Boevre, M.; Jacxsens, L.; Eeckhout, M.; De Saeger, S. Impact of Season, Region, and Traditional Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxins and Fumonisins Contamination in the Rice Chain in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Toxins 2021, 13, 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090667

AMA Style

Phan LTK, Tran TM, De Boevre M, Jacxsens L, Eeckhout M, De Saeger S. Impact of Season, Region, and Traditional Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxins and Fumonisins Contamination in the Rice Chain in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):667. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090667

Chicago/Turabian Style

Phan, Lien T.K., Trang M. Tran, Marthe De Boevre, Liesbeth Jacxsens, Mia Eeckhout, and Sarah De Saeger. 2021. "Impact of Season, Region, and Traditional Agricultural Practices on Aflatoxins and Fumonisins Contamination in the Rice Chain in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam" Toxins 13, no. 9: 667. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090667

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