Next Article in Journal
Potential of Near Infrared Spectroscopy as a Rapid Method to Discriminate OTA and Non-OTA-Producing Mould Species in a Dry-Cured Ham Model System
Next Article in Special Issue
Neutrophil Gelatinase–Associated Lipocalin Acts as a Robust Early Diagnostic Marker for Renal Replacement Therapy in Patients with Russell’s Viper Bite–Induced Acute Kidney Injuries
Previous Article in Journal
Early Warning of Resistance to Bt Toxin Vip3Aa in Helicoverpa zea
Previous Article in Special Issue
A Biochemical and Pharmacological Characterization of Phospholipase A2 and Metalloproteinase Fractions from Eastern Russell’s Viper (Daboia siamensis) Venom: Two Major Components Associated with Acute Kidney Injury
Article

Analysis of the Necrosis-Inducing Components of the Venom of Naja atra and Assessment of the Neutralization Ability of Freeze-Dried Antivenom

1
Department of Emergency Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
2
Institute of Toxicology, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei 100, Taiwan
3
College of Life Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
4
Institute of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
5
Division of Clinical Toxicology, Department of Emergency Medicine, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung 407, Taiwan
6
Division of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
7
Division of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan
8
Taichung Wildlife Conservation Group, Taichung 436, Taiwan
9
Department of Chinese Medicine, Chang Bing Show Chwan Memorial Hospital, Changhua 505, Taiwan
10
School of Medical Laboratory Science and Biotechnology, College of Medical Science and Technology, Taipei Medical University, Taipei 110, Taiwan
11
Division of Animal Physiology and Immunology, TUM School of Life Sciences Weihenstephan, Technical University Munich, 85354 Freising, Germany
12
Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, China Medical University, Taichung 404, Taiwan
13
Department of Pediatrics, College of Medicine, National Taiwan University Hospital, Taipei 100, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(9), 619; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090619
Received: 21 July 2021 / Revised: 28 August 2021 / Accepted: 31 August 2021 / Published: 2 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom-Induced Tissue Damage)
Patients bitten by Naja atra who are treated with bivalent freeze-dried neurotoxic antivenom in Taiwan have an improved survival rate but develop necrotic wound changes. The World Health Organization (WHO) has suggested using the minimum necrotizing dose (MND) of venom as a method of evaluating the neutralization effect of antivenom. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of antivenom for the prevention of necrosis based on the MND and clarify which component of the venom of N. atra induces necrosis. The neurotoxins (NTXs) were removed from the crude venom (deNTXs), and different concentrations of deNTXs were injected intradermally into the dorsal skin of mice. After three days, the necrotic lesion diameter was found to be approximately 5 mm, and the MND was calculated. A reduction in the necrotic diameter of 50% was used to identify the MND50. Furthermore, both phospholipase A2 (PLA2) and cytotoxins (CTXs) were separately removed from the deNTXs to identify the major necrosis-inducing factor, and the necrotic lesions were scored. All mice injected with deNTXs survived for three days and developed necrotic wounds. The MND of the deNTXs for mice was 0.494 ± 0.029 µg/g, that of the deNTXs-dePLA2 (major component retained: CTXs) was 0.294 ± 0.05 µg/g, and that of the deNTX-deCTX (major component retained: PLA2) venom was greater than 1.25 µg/g. These values show that CTX is the major factor inducing necrosis. These results suggest that the use of the deNTXs is necessary to enable the mice to survive long enough to develop venom-induced cytolytic effects. CTXs play a major role in N. atra-related necrosis. However, the MND50 could not be identified in this study, which meant that the antivenom did not neutralize venom-induced necrosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: Naja atra; snake; minimum necrotizing dose Naja atra; snake; minimum necrotizing dose
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ho, C.-H.; Chiang, L.-C.; Mao, Y.-C.; Lan, K.-C.; Tsai, S.-H.; Shih, Y.-J.; Tzeng, Y.-S.; Lin, C.-S.; Lin, W.-L.; Fang, W.-H.; Chen, K.-T.; Lee, C.-H.; Chiang, D.M.-L.; Liu, S.-H. Analysis of the Necrosis-Inducing Components of the Venom of Naja atra and Assessment of the Neutralization Ability of Freeze-Dried Antivenom. Toxins 2021, 13, 619. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090619

AMA Style

Ho C-H, Chiang L-C, Mao Y-C, Lan K-C, Tsai S-H, Shih Y-J, Tzeng Y-S, Lin C-S, Lin W-L, Fang W-H, Chen K-T, Lee C-H, Chiang DM-L, Liu S-H. Analysis of the Necrosis-Inducing Components of the Venom of Naja atra and Assessment of the Neutralization Ability of Freeze-Dried Antivenom. Toxins. 2021; 13(9):619. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090619

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ho, Cheng-Hsuan, Liao-Chun Chiang, Yan-Chiao Mao, Kuo-Cheng Lan, Shih-Hung Tsai, Yu-Jen Shih, Yuan-Sheng Tzeng, Chin-Sheng Lin, Wen-Loung Lin, Wei-Hsuan Fang, Kuang-Ting Chen, Chi-Hsin Lee, Dapi M.-L. Chiang, and Shing-Hwa Liu. 2021. "Analysis of the Necrosis-Inducing Components of the Venom of Naja atra and Assessment of the Neutralization Ability of Freeze-Dried Antivenom" Toxins 13, no. 9: 619. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13090619

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop