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Article

Concentration of Zearalenone, Alpha-Zearalenol and Beta-Zearalenol in the Myocardium and the Results of Isometric Analyses of the Coronary Artery in Prepubertal Gilts

1
Department of Veterinary Prevention and Feed Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego 13/29, 10-718 Olsztyn, Poland
2
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Warszawska 30, 10-082 Olsztyn, Poland
3
Institute of Biology and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, Pigonia 1, 35-310 Rzeszow, Poland
4
Interdisciplinary Center for Preclinical and Clinical Research, Department of Biotechnology, Institute of Biol-ogy and Biotechnology, College of Natural Sciences, University of Rzeszów, Pigonia 1, 35-310 Rzeszow, Po-land
5
Dairy Industry Innovation Institute Ltd., Kormoranów 1, 11-700 Mrągowo, Poland
6
Independent Public Health Care Centre of the Ministry of the Interior and Administration, and the Warmia and Mazury Oncology Centre in Olsztyn, Wojska Polskiego 37, 10-228 Olsztyn, Poland
7
Department of Biological Function of Foods, Institute of Animal Reproduction and Food Research, Division of Food Science, Tuwima 10, 10-748 Olsztyn, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(6), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060396
Received: 19 April 2021 / Revised: 24 May 2021 / Accepted: 31 May 2021 / Published: 2 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Influence of Deoxynivalenol and Zearalenone in Feed on Animal Health)
The carry-over of zearalenone (ZEN) to the myocardium and its effects on coronary vascular reactivity in vivo have not been addressed in the literature to date. Therefore, the objective of this study was to verify the hypothesis that low ZEN doses (MABEL, NOAEL and LOAEL) administered per os to prepubertal gilts for 21 days affect the accumulation of ZEN, α-ZEL and β-ZEL in the myocardium and the reactivity of the porcine coronary arteries to vasoconstrictors: acetylcholine, potassium chloride and vasodilator sodium nitroprusside. The contractile response to acetylcholine in the presence of a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor, indomethacin and / or an endothelial nitric oxide synthase (e-NOS) inhibitor, L-NAME was also studied. The results of this study indicate that the carry-over of ZEN and its metabolites to the myocardium is a highly individualized process that occurs even at very low mycotoxin concentrations. The concentrations of the accumulated ZEN metabolites are inversely proportional to each other due to biotransformation processes. The levels of vasoconstrictors, acetylcholine and potassium chloride, were examined in the left anterior descending branch of the porcine coronary artery after oral administration of ZEN. The LOAEL dose clearly decreased vasoconstriction in response to both potassium chloride and acetylcholine (P < 0.05 for all values) and increased vasodilation in the presence of sodium nitroprusside (P = 0.021). The NOAEL dose significantly increased vasoconstriction caused by acetylcholine (P < 0.04), whereas the MABEL dose did not cause significant changes in the vascular response. Unlike higher doses of ZEN, 5 μg/kg had no negative influence on the vascular system. View Full-Text
Keywords: zearalenone; low doses; carry-over; myocardium; vascular reactivity zearalenone; low doses; carry-over; myocardium; vascular reactivity
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gajęcka, M.; Majewski, M.S.; Zielonka, Ł.; Grzegorzewski, W.; Onyszek, E.; Lisieska-Żołnierczyk, S.; Juśkiewicz, J.; Babuchowski, A.; Gajęcki, M.T. Concentration of Zearalenone, Alpha-Zearalenol and Beta-Zearalenol in the Myocardium and the Results of Isometric Analyses of the Coronary Artery in Prepubertal Gilts. Toxins 2021, 13, 396. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060396

AMA Style

Gajęcka M, Majewski MS, Zielonka Ł, Grzegorzewski W, Onyszek E, Lisieska-Żołnierczyk S, Juśkiewicz J, Babuchowski A, Gajęcki MT. Concentration of Zearalenone, Alpha-Zearalenol and Beta-Zearalenol in the Myocardium and the Results of Isometric Analyses of the Coronary Artery in Prepubertal Gilts. Toxins. 2021; 13(6):396. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060396

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gajęcka, Magdalena, Michał S. Majewski, Łukasz Zielonka, Waldemar Grzegorzewski, Ewa Onyszek, Sylwia Lisieska-Żołnierczyk, Jerzy Juśkiewicz, Andrzej Babuchowski, and Maciej T. Gajęcki 2021. "Concentration of Zearalenone, Alpha-Zearalenol and Beta-Zearalenol in the Myocardium and the Results of Isometric Analyses of the Coronary Artery in Prepubertal Gilts" Toxins 13, no. 6: 396. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13060396

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