Next Article in Journal
Assessment of Human Exposure to Five Alternaria Mycotoxins in China by Biomonitoring Approach
Next Article in Special Issue
Keeping Lagocephalus sceleratus off the Table: Sources of Variation in the Quantity of TTX, TTX Analogues, and Risk of Tetrodotoxication
Previous Article in Journal
Knowledge and Behavioral Habits to Reduce Mycotoxin Dietary Exposure at Household Level in a Cohort of German University Students
Previous Article in Special Issue
Twenty-Five Years of Domoic Acid Monitoring in Galicia (NW Spain): Spatial, Temporal and Interspecific Variations
Article

Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Mussels from the Eastern Cantabrian Sea: Toxicity, Toxin Profile, and Co-Occurrence with Cyclic Imines

1
Instituto Tecnolóxico para o Control do Medio Mariño (Intecmar), Peirao de Vilaxoán s/n, 36611 Vilagarcía de Arousa, Spain
2
Centro de Investigacións Mariñas (CIMA), Xunta de Galicia, Pedras de Corón s/n, 36620 Vilanova de Arousa, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2021, 13(11), 761; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110761
Received: 20 September 2021 / Revised: 25 October 2021 / Accepted: 25 October 2021 / Published: 27 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Monitoring of Marine Biotoxins)
In the late autumn of 2018 and 2019, some samples taken by the official monitoring systems of Cantabria and the Basque Country were found to be paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)-positive using a mouse bioassay. To confirm the presence of PSP toxins and to obtain their profile, these samples were analyzed using an optimized version of the Official Method AOAC 2005.06 and using LC–MS/MS (HILIC). The presence of some PSP toxins (PSTs) in that geographical area (~600 km of coast) was confirmed for the first time. The estimated toxicities ranged from 170 to 983 µg STXdiHCl eq.·kg−1 for the AOAC 2005.06 method and from 150 to 1094 µg STXdiHCl eq.·kg−1 for the LC–MS/MS method, with a good correlation between both methods (r2 = 0.94). Most samples contained STX, GTX2,3, and GTX1,4, and some also had NEO and dcGTX2. All of the PSP-positive samples also contained gymnodimine A, with the concentrations of the two groups of toxins being significantly correlated. The PSP toxin profiles suggest that a species of the genus Alexandrium was likely the causative agent. The presence of gymnodimine A suggests that A. ostenfeldii could be involved, but the contribution of a mixture of Alexandrium species cannot be ruled out. View Full-Text
Keywords: shellfish; gymnodimine A; 13-desmethyl spirolide C; Cantabria; Basque Country; Alexandrium; LC–FLD; LC–MS/MS; HILIC; mouse bioassay shellfish; gymnodimine A; 13-desmethyl spirolide C; Cantabria; Basque Country; Alexandrium; LC–FLD; LC–MS/MS; HILIC; mouse bioassay
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Rodríguez-Cabo, T.; Moroño, Á.; Arévalo, F.; Correa, J.; Lamas, J.P.; Rossignoli, A.E.; Blanco, J. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Mussels from the Eastern Cantabrian Sea: Toxicity, Toxin Profile, and Co-Occurrence with Cyclic Imines. Toxins 2021, 13, 761. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110761

AMA Style

Rodríguez-Cabo T, Moroño Á, Arévalo F, Correa J, Lamas JP, Rossignoli AE, Blanco J. Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Mussels from the Eastern Cantabrian Sea: Toxicity, Toxin Profile, and Co-Occurrence with Cyclic Imines. Toxins. 2021; 13(11):761. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110761

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rodríguez-Cabo, Tamara, Ángeles Moroño, Fabiola Arévalo, Jorge Correa, Juan P. Lamas, Araceli E. Rossignoli, and Juan Blanco. 2021. "Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) in Mussels from the Eastern Cantabrian Sea: Toxicity, Toxin Profile, and Co-Occurrence with Cyclic Imines" Toxins 13, no. 11: 761. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13110761

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop