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Article

Cytotoxicity Effect of Quinoin, Type 1 Ribosome-Inactivating Protein from Quinoa Seeds, on Glioblastoma Cells

1
INM IRCCS Istituto Neurologico Mediterraneo NEUROMED, Via Atinense 18, 86077 Pozzilli, Italy
2
Department of Environmental, Biological and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Technologies (DiSTABiF), University of Campania “Luigi Vanvitelli”, Via Vivaldi 43, 81100 Caserta, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
These authors share equal senior authorship.
Toxins 2021, 13(10), 684; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100684
Received: 6 August 2021 / Revised: 22 September 2021 / Accepted: 22 September 2021 / Published: 25 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxin and Immunotoxin Based Therapeutic Approaches)
Ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs) are found in several edible plants and are well characterized. Many studies highlight their use in cancer therapy, alone or as immunoconjugates, linked to monoclonal antibodies directed against target cancer cells. In this context, we investigate the cytotoxicity of quinoin, a novel type 1 RIP from quinoa seeds, on human continuous and primary glioblastoma cell lines. The cytotoxic effect of quinoin was assayed on human continuous glioblastoma U87Mg cells. Moreover, considering that common conventional glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines are genetically different from the tumors from which they derive, the cytotoxicity of quinoin was subsequently tested towards primary cells NULU and ZAR (two cell lines established from patients’ gliomas), also in combination with the chemotherapeutic agent temozolomide (TMZ), currently used in glioblastoma treatment. The present study demonstrated that quinoin (2.5 and 5.0 nM) strongly reduced glioblastoma cells’ growth. The mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory action of quinoin are different in the tested primary cell lines, reproducing the heterogeneous response of glioblastoma cells. Interestingly, primary cells treated with quinoin in combination with TMZ were more sensitive to the treatment. Overall, our data highlight that quinoin could represent a novel tool for glioblastoma therapy and a possible adjuvant for the treatment of the disease in combination with TMZ, alone or as possible immunoconjugates/nanoconstructs. View Full-Text
Keywords: patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines; Chenopodium quinoa wild; ribosome-inactivating proteins; quinoin; temozolomide patient-derived glioblastoma cell lines; Chenopodium quinoa wild; ribosome-inactivating proteins; quinoin; temozolomide
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rotondo, R.; Ragucci, S.; Castaldo, S.; Oliva, M.A.; Landi, N.; Pedone, P.V.; Arcella, A.; Di Maro, A. Cytotoxicity Effect of Quinoin, Type 1 Ribosome-Inactivating Protein from Quinoa Seeds, on Glioblastoma Cells. Toxins 2021, 13, 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100684

AMA Style

Rotondo R, Ragucci S, Castaldo S, Oliva MA, Landi N, Pedone PV, Arcella A, Di Maro A. Cytotoxicity Effect of Quinoin, Type 1 Ribosome-Inactivating Protein from Quinoa Seeds, on Glioblastoma Cells. Toxins. 2021; 13(10):684. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100684

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rotondo, Rossella, Sara Ragucci, Salvatore Castaldo, Maria A. Oliva, Nicola Landi, Paolo V. Pedone, Antonietta Arcella, and Antimo Di Maro. 2021. "Cytotoxicity Effect of Quinoin, Type 1 Ribosome-Inactivating Protein from Quinoa Seeds, on Glioblastoma Cells" Toxins 13, no. 10: 684. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins13100684

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