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Open AccessReview

Venom Ophthalmia and Ocular Complications Caused by Snake Venom

1
Spencer Center for Vision Research, Byers Eye Institute, School of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA 94304, USA
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Louis J. Fox Center for Vision Restoration, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA 15213, USA
3
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
4
Division of Neurosurgery, Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung 80708, Taiwan
5
Department of Surgery, Kaohsiung Municipal Ta-Tung Hospital, Kaohsiung 80145, Taiwan
6
Department of Chest Medicine, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan
7
Institute of Clinical Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
8
Enkang Clinic, New Taipei 23144, Taiwan
9
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Colorado State University, Ft. Collins, CO 80523, USA
10
Emergency Department, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taipei 11217, Taiwan
11
Department of Emergency Medicine, School of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei 11221, Taiwan
12
National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 11490, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(9), 576; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090576
Received: 12 August 2020 / Revised: 1 September 2020 / Accepted: 3 September 2020 / Published: 8 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Novel Strategies for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Snakebites)
Little is known about the detailed clinical description, pathophysiology, and efficacy of treatments for ocular envenoming (venom ophthalmia) caused by venom of the spitting elapid and other snakes, as well as ocular complications caused by snake venom injection. In this paper, we review clinical information of case reports regarding venom ophthalmia and snake venom injection with associated ocular injuries in Asia, Africa, and the United States. We also review the literature of snake venom such as their compositions, properties, and toxic effects. Based on the available clinical information and animal studies, we further discuss possible mechanisms of venom ophthalmia derived from two different routes (Duvernoy’s gland in the mouth and nuchal gland in the dorsal neck) and the pathophysiology of snake venom injection induced ocular complications, including corneal edema, corneal erosion, cataract, ocular inflammation, retinal hemorrhage, acute angle closure glaucoma, as well as ptosis, diplopia, and photophobia. Finally, we discuss the appropriate first aid and novel strategies for treating venom ophthalmia and snake envenoming. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venom; snakebite; spitting venom; nuchal gland; corneal edema; retinal hemorrhage snake venom; snakebite; spitting venom; nuchal gland; corneal edema; retinal hemorrhage
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MDPI and ACS Style

Chang, K.-C.; Huang, Y.-K.; Chen, Y.-W.; Chen, M.-H.; Tu, A.T.; Chen, Y.-C. Venom Ophthalmia and Ocular Complications Caused by Snake Venom. Toxins 2020, 12, 576. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090576

AMA Style

Chang K-C, Huang Y-K, Chen Y-W, Chen M-H, Tu AT, Chen Y-C. Venom Ophthalmia and Ocular Complications Caused by Snake Venom. Toxins. 2020; 12(9):576. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090576

Chicago/Turabian Style

Chang, Kun-Che; Huang, Yu-Kai; Chen, Yen-Wen; Chen, Min-Hui; Tu, Anthony T.; Chen, Yen-Chia. 2020. "Venom Ophthalmia and Ocular Complications Caused by Snake Venom" Toxins 12, no. 9: 576. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12090576

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