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Antimicrobial Properties of Apis mellifera’s Bee Venom

International Research Center for Food Nutrition and Safety, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
Department of Molecular Biosciences, The Wenner-Gren Institute, Stockholm University, S-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden
Al-Rayan Research and Innovation Center, Al-Rayan Colleges, Medina 42541, Saudi Arabia
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom 32512, Egypt
Department of Bee Research, Plant Protection Research Institute, Agricultural Research Centre, Giza 12627, Egypt
School of Food and Biological Engineering, Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang 212013, China
H.E.J. Research Institute of Chemistry, International Center for Chemical and Biological Sciences, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270, Pakistan
College of Food Science, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Kuwait, Safat 13060, Kuwait
Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, International Islamic University Malaysia, Kuantan, Pahang 25200, Malaysia
Faculty of Pharmacy, Airlangga University, Surabaya 60155, Indonesia
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(7), 451;
Received: 3 June 2020 / Revised: 8 July 2020 / Accepted: 9 July 2020 / Published: 11 July 2020
Bee venom (BV) is a rich source of secondary metabolites from honeybees (Apis mellifera L.). It contains a variety of bioactive ingredients including peptides, proteins, enzymes, and volatile metabolites. The compounds contribute to the venom’s observed biological functions as per its anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects. The antimicrobial action of BV has been shown in vitro and in vivo experiments against bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The synergistic therapeutic interactions of BV with antibiotics has been reported. The synergistic effect contributes to a decrease in the loading and maintenance dosage, a decrease in the side effects of chemotherapy, and a decrease in drug resistance. To our knowledge, there have been no reviews on the impact of BV and its antimicrobial constituents thus far. The purpose of this review is to address the antimicrobial properties of BV and its compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: bee venom; antimicrobial properties; melittin; apamin; phospholipase A2 (PLA2) bee venom; antimicrobial properties; melittin; apamin; phospholipase A2 (PLA2)
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MDPI and ACS Style

El-Seedi, H.; Abd El-Wahed, A.; Yosri, N.; Musharraf, S.G.; Chen, L.; Moustafa, M.; Zou, X.; Al-Mousawi, S.; Guo, Z.; Khatib, A.; Khalifa, S. Antimicrobial Properties of Apis mellifera’s Bee Venom. Toxins 2020, 12, 451.

AMA Style

El-Seedi H, Abd El-Wahed A, Yosri N, Musharraf SG, Chen L, Moustafa M, Zou X, Al-Mousawi S, Guo Z, Khatib A, Khalifa S. Antimicrobial Properties of Apis mellifera’s Bee Venom. Toxins. 2020; 12(7):451.

Chicago/Turabian Style

El-Seedi, Hesham, Aida Abd El-Wahed, Nermeen Yosri, Syed Ghulam Musharraf, Lei Chen, Moustafa Moustafa, Xiaobo Zou, Saleh Al-Mousawi, Zhiming Guo, Alfi Khatib, and Shaden Khalifa. 2020. "Antimicrobial Properties of Apis mellifera’s Bee Venom" Toxins 12, no. 7: 451.

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