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Open AccessArticle

The Synergism of PGN, LTA and LPS in Inducing Transcriptome Changes, Inflammatory Responses and a Decrease in Lactation as Well as the Associated Epigenetic Mechanisms in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells

1
College of Animal Science and Technology, Southwest University, Beibei District, Chongqing 400716, China
2
Institute for Herbivorous Livestock Research, Chongqing Academy of Animal Science, Chongqing 402460, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(6), 387; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12060387
Received: 24 April 2020 / Revised: 7 June 2020 / Accepted: 9 June 2020 / Published: 11 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Bacterial Toxins)
Mastitis is usually caused by a variety of pathogenic bacteria that include both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is the pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMP) of Gram-negative bacteria, and peptidoglycan (PGN) and lipoteichoic acid (LTA) are those of Gram-positive bacteria. The effects of LPS, PGN and/or LTA on inflammatory response and lactation in bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs) are well studied, but the epigenetic mechanisms of their effects received less attention. Furthermore, since the three PAMPs are often simultaneously present in the udder of cows with mastitis, it has implications in practice to study their additive effects. The results show that co-stimulation of bovine mammary epithelial cells with PGN, LTA, and LPS induced a higher number of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and greater expressions of inflammatory factors including interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1, and CXCL6. In addition, co-stimulation further increased DNA hypomethylation compared with sole LPS stimulation. Co-stimulation greatly decreased casein expression but did not further decrease histone acetylation levels and affect the activity of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC), compared with sole LPS stimulation. Collectively, this study demonstrated that PGN, LTA, and LPS had an additive effect on inducing transcriptome changes and inflammatory responses in BMECs, probably through inducing a greater decrease in DNA methylation. Co-stimulation with PGN, LTA, and LPS decreased casein expression to a greater degree, but it might not be linked to histone acetylation and HAT and HDAC activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: lipopolysaccharide; peptidoglycan; lipoteichoic acid; DNA methylation; histone acetylation; inflammation; lactation; bovine mammary epithelial cells lipopolysaccharide; peptidoglycan; lipoteichoic acid; DNA methylation; histone acetylation; inflammation; lactation; bovine mammary epithelial cells
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Wu, Y.; Sun, Y.; Dong, X.; Chen, J.; Wang, Z.; Chen, J.; Dong, G. The Synergism of PGN, LTA and LPS in Inducing Transcriptome Changes, Inflammatory Responses and a Decrease in Lactation as Well as the Associated Epigenetic Mechanisms in Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cells. Toxins 2020, 12, 387.

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