This manuscript reviews the state-of-the-art regarding human biological monitoring (HBM) of mycotoxins in plasma, serum and blood samples. After a comprehensive and systematic literature review, with a focus on the last five years, several aspects were analyzed and summarized: (a) the biomarkers analyzed and their encountered levels, (b) the analytical methodologies developed and (c) the relationship between biomarker levels and some illnesses. In the literature reviewed, aflatoxin B1-lysine (AFB1-lys) and ochratoxin A (OTA) in plasma and serum were the most widely studied mycotoxin biomarkers for HBM. Regarding analytical methodologies, a clear increase in the development of methods for the simultaneous determination of multiple mycotoxins has been observed. For this purpose, the use of liquid chromatography (LC) methodologies, especially when coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) or high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) has grown. A high percentage of the samples analyzed for OTA or aflatoxin B1 (mostly as AFB1-lys) in the reviewed papers were positive, demonstrating human exposure to mycotoxins. This review confirms the importance of mycotoxin human biomonitoring and highlights the important challenges that should be faced, such as the inclusion of other mycotoxins in HBM programs, the need to increase knowledge of mycotoxin metabolism and toxicokinetics, and the need for reference materials and new methodologies for treating samples. In addition, guidelines are required for analytical method validation, as well as equations to establish the relationship between human fluid levels and mycotoxin intake.
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