Next Article in Journal
Effect of Botulinum Toxin A on Bladder Pain—Molecular Evidence and Animal Studies
Previous Article in Journal
Inflammatory Reaction Induced by Two Metalloproteinases Isolated from Bothrops atrox Venom and by Fragments Generated from the Hydrolysis of Basement Membrane Components
Article

Cultivation Area Affects the Presence of Fungal Communities and Secondary Metabolites in Italian Durum Wheat Grains

1
Department of Agricultural, Food and Environmental Sciences, University of Perugia, Borgo XX Giugno, 74, 06121 Perugia, Italy
2
Department of Agricultural and Food Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum University of Bologna, Viale G. Fanin, 44, 40127 Bologna, Italy
3
Department of Agriculture, University of Sassari, Via E. De Nicola, 9, 07100 Sassari, Italy
4
Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Applied Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenz Strasse, 20, A-3430 Tulln, Austria
5
Research Institute for Geo-Hydrological Protection, National Research Council, Via della Madonna Alta, 126, 06128 Perugia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current co-address: Centre for Crop and Disease Management, School of Molecular and Life Sciences, Curtin University, Bentley, Perth 6102, WA, Australia.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020097
Received: 3 December 2019 / Revised: 27 January 2020 / Accepted: 29 January 2020 / Published: 3 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
In this study, durum wheat kernels harvested in three climatically different Italian cultivation areas (Emilia Romagna, Umbria and Sardinia) in 2015, were analyzed with a combination of different isolation methods to determine their fungal communities, with a focus on Fusarium head blight (FHB) complex composition, and to detect fungal secondary metabolites in the grains. The genus Alternaria was the main component of durum wheat mycobiota in all investigated regions, with the Central Italian cultivation area showing the highest incidence of this fungal genus and of its secondary metabolites. Fusarium was the second most prevalent genus of the fungal community in all cultivation environments, even if regional differences in species composition were detected. In particular, Northern areas showed the highest Fusarium incidence, followed by Central and then Southern cultivation areas. Focusing on the FHB complex, a predominance of Fusarium poae, in particular in Northern and Central cultivation areas, was found. Fusarium graminearum, in the analyzed year, was mainly detected in Emilia Romagna. Because of the highest Fusarium incidence, durum wheat harvested in the Northern cultivation area showed the highest presence of Fusarium secondary metabolites. These results show that durum wheat cultivated in Northern Italy may be subject to a higher FHB infection risk and to Fusarium mycotoxins accumulation. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium head blight; Triticum turgidum subsp. durum; mycotoxins; cereals; wheat Fusarium head blight; Triticum turgidum subsp. durum; mycotoxins; cereals; wheat
Show Figures

Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

Beccari, G.; Prodi, A.; Senatore, M.T.; Balmas, V.; Tini, F.; Onofri, A.; Pedini, L.; Sulyok, M.; Brocca, L.; Covarelli, L. Cultivation Area Affects the Presence of Fungal Communities and Secondary Metabolites in Italian Durum Wheat Grains. Toxins 2020, 12, 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020097

AMA Style

Beccari G, Prodi A, Senatore MT, Balmas V, Tini F, Onofri A, Pedini L, Sulyok M, Brocca L, Covarelli L. Cultivation Area Affects the Presence of Fungal Communities and Secondary Metabolites in Italian Durum Wheat Grains. Toxins. 2020; 12(2):97. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020097

Chicago/Turabian Style

Beccari, Giovanni, Antonio Prodi, Maria T. Senatore, Virgilio Balmas, Francesco Tini, Andrea Onofri, Luca Pedini, Michael Sulyok, Luca Brocca, and Lorenzo Covarelli. 2020. "Cultivation Area Affects the Presence of Fungal Communities and Secondary Metabolites in Italian Durum Wheat Grains" Toxins 12, no. 2: 97. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins12020097

Find Other Styles
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop