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How the Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-l-Alanine Accumulates in Bivalves: Distribution of the Different Accumulation Fractions among Organs

UMR-I 02 INERIS-URCA-ULH SEBIO, Unité Stress Environnementaux et BIOsurveillance des milieux aquatiques, UFR Sciences Exactes et Naturelles, Moulin de la Housse, BP 1039, 51687 Reims CEDEX 2, France
Wageningen Food Safety Research, Wageningen Research, Akkermaalsbos 2, 6708 WB Wageningen, The Netherlands
Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3a, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
Department of Microbial Ecology, Netherlands Institute of Ecology (NIOO-KNAW), Droevendaalsesteeg 10, 6708 PB Wageningen, The Netherlands
Equipe Cyanobactéries, Cyanotoxines et Environnement, UMR Molécules de Communication et Adaptation des Microorganismes (MCAM), Museum National Histoire Naturelle, CNRS, 12 rue Buffon, CP 39, 75231 Paris CEDEX 05, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2020, 12(2), 61;
Received: 26 November 2019 / Revised: 30 December 2019 / Accepted: 14 January 2020 / Published: 21 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Freshwater HABs and Health in a Changing World)
The environmental neurotoxin β-methylamino-l-alanine (BMAA) may represent a risk for human health. BMAA accumulates in freshwater and marine organisms consumed by humans. However, few data are available about the kinetics of BMAA accumulation and detoxification in exposed organisms, as well as the organ distribution and the fractions in which BMAA is present in tissues (free, soluble bound or precipitated bound cellular fractions). Here, we exposed the bivalve mussel Dreissena polymorpha to 7.5 µg of dissolved BMAA/mussel/3 days for 21 days, followed by 21 days of depuration in clear water. At 1, 3, 8, 14 and 21 days of exposure and depuration, the hemolymph and organs (digestive gland, the gills, the mantle, the gonad and muscles/foot) were sampled. Total BMAA as well as free BMAA, soluble bound and precipitated bound BMAA were quantified by tandem mass spectrometry. Free and soluble bound BMAA spread throughout all tissues from the first day of exposure to the last day of depuration, without a specific target organ. However, precipitated bound BMAA was detected only in muscles and foot from the last day of exposure to day 8 of depuration, at a lower concentration compared to free and soluble bound BMAA. In soft tissues (digestive gland, gonad, gills, mantle and muscles/foot), BMAA mostly accumulated as a free molecule and in the soluble bound fraction, with variations occurring between the two fractions among tissues and over time. The results suggest that the assessment of bivalve contamination by BMAA may require the quantification of total BMAA in whole individuals when possible. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-Methylamino-l-alanine; organotropism; Dreissena polymorpha; BMAA β-Methylamino-l-alanine; organotropism; Dreissena polymorpha; BMAA
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Lepoutre, A.; Faassen, E.J.; Zweers, A.J.; Lürling, M.; Geffard, A.; Lance, E. How the Neurotoxin β-N-Methylamino-l-Alanine Accumulates in Bivalves: Distribution of the Different Accumulation Fractions among Organs. Toxins 2020, 12, 61.

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