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Toxins 2019, 11(4), 198;

The Pressure of Fusarium Disease and Its Relation with Mycotoxins in The Wheat Grain and Malt

Agricultural Institute Osijek, Juzno predgradje 17, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 20, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Food Technology, University Centre Koprivnica, University North, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, HR-48000 Koprivnica, Croatia.
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
PDF [3238 KB, uploaded 2 April 2019]


Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive wheat fungal diseases, causing yield loss, quality reduction, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this research was to summarize the occurrence of major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZEN) in two consecutive years to search the relationship between disease incidence and severity with mycotoxins found in control and inoculated grains and corresponding malt. In addition, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in one-year research was measured. Tested wheat varieties showed infection scores of 3% (‘U1’ and ‘Sirban Prolifik’) to 79% (‘Golubica’) for Type I resistance evaluation. There were few moderately resistant varieties in view of their areas under the disease progress curve, which can be considered Type III resistance (‘Sirban Prolifik’ and ‘U1’). According to the data quantified by LC–MS/MS, DON decreased in infected malt in comparison to corresponding grain, while ZEN occurred only in infected malt samples. Both 3-AcDON and NIV increased in inoculated malt in comparison to corresponding grain, due to a combination of plant metabolism and de novo synthesis by molds during malting. Based on the results, we can draw a few conclusions: the resistance to Fusarium decreased quantified concentrations of DON; ZEN gets synthetized during malting; unregulated 3-AcDON and NIV increase during malting; more resistant varieties have converted DON to D3G more successfully. Modified mycotoxins should be also included to legislation, since they could be transformed back to the corresponding mycotoxins under food processing conditions or during digestion. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone; wheat malt Fusarium; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone; wheat malt

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Spanic, V.; Zdunic, Z.; Drezner, G.; Sarkanj, B. The Pressure of Fusarium Disease and Its Relation with Mycotoxins in The Wheat Grain and Malt. Toxins 2019, 11, 198.

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