Next Article in Journal
A Novel Modified Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate (HSCAS) Adsorbent Can Effectively Reduce T-2 Toxin-Induced Toxicity in Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Serum Biochemistry, and Small Intestinal Morphology in Chicks
Previous Article in Journal
D. russelii Venom Mediates Vasodilatation of Resistance Like Arteries via Activation of Kv and KCa Channels
Open AccessArticle

The Pressure of Fusarium Disease and Its Relation with Mycotoxins in The Wheat Grain and Malt

1
Agricultural Institute Osijek, Juzno predgradje 17, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
2
Faculty of Food Technology Osijek, Josip Juraj Strossmayer University of Osijek, Franje Kuhača 20, HR-31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Current address: Department of Food Technology, University Centre Koprivnica, University North, Trg dr. Žarka Dolinara 1, HR-48000 Koprivnica, Croatia.
Toxins 2019, 11(4), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040198
Received: 25 February 2019 / Revised: 22 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 2 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Fusarium head blight (FHB) is one of the most destructive wheat fungal diseases, causing yield loss, quality reduction, and accumulation of mycotoxins. The aim of this research was to summarize the occurrence of major Fusarium mycotoxins: deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-AcDON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZEN) in two consecutive years to search the relationship between disease incidence and severity with mycotoxins found in control and inoculated grains and corresponding malt. In addition, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside (D3G) in one-year research was measured. Tested wheat varieties showed infection scores of 3% (‘U1’ and ‘Sirban Prolifik’) to 79% (‘Golubica’) for Type I resistance evaluation. There were few moderately resistant varieties in view of their areas under the disease progress curve, which can be considered Type III resistance (‘Sirban Prolifik’ and ‘U1’). According to the data quantified by LC–MS/MS, DON decreased in infected malt in comparison to corresponding grain, while ZEN occurred only in infected malt samples. Both 3-AcDON and NIV increased in inoculated malt in comparison to corresponding grain, due to a combination of plant metabolism and de novo synthesis by molds during malting. Based on the results, we can draw a few conclusions: the resistance to Fusarium decreased quantified concentrations of DON; ZEN gets synthetized during malting; unregulated 3-AcDON and NIV increase during malting; more resistant varieties have converted DON to D3G more successfully. Modified mycotoxins should be also included to legislation, since they could be transformed back to the corresponding mycotoxins under food processing conditions or during digestion. View Full-Text
Keywords: Fusarium; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone; wheat malt Fusarium; deoxynivalenol; nivalenol; zearalenone; wheat malt
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Spanic, V.; Zdunic, Z.; Drezner, G.; Sarkanj, B. The Pressure of Fusarium Disease and Its Relation with Mycotoxins in The Wheat Grain and Malt. Toxins 2019, 11, 198.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop