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Correction: Zhen, Z. et al. NaCl Inhibits Citrinin and Stimulates Monascus Pigments and Monacolin K Production. Toxins 2019, 11, 118
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Toxins 2019, 11(4), 184; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11040184

Optimized Analysis of Ergot Alkaloids in Rye Products by Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection Applying Lysergic Acid Diethylamide as an Internal Standard

1
Central Institute of the Bundeswehr Medical Service Munich, Ingolstädter Landstraße 102, D-85748 Garching, Germany
2
Chair of Analytical Food Chemistry, Technical University of Munich, Maximus-von-Imhof-Forum 2, D-85350 Freising, Germany
3
Pharmaceutical Institute, Pharmaceutical Chemistry I, University of Bonn, An der Immenburg 4, D-53121 Bonn, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 21 March 2019 / Accepted: 23 March 2019 / Published: 28 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

Analysis of ergot alkaloids remains a topic of importance and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) has encouraged laboratories to provide monitoring data for the further evaluation of their occurrence in food and feed. While LC-MS/MS has dominated developments in recent years, LC-FLD is still more widespread, especially in developing countries. To improve the analysis of ergot alkaloids by LC-FLD, we developed an improved protocol introducing lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for internal standardization. Several aspects such as the composition and pH of the extraction medium, type of sorbent and conditions applied for solid-phase extraction/clean-up, use of a keeper during final evaporation and the type of syringe filter used for filtration prior to injection were thoroughly investigated. Optimized conditions comprise extraction by ethyl acetate, methanol and 28% aqueous ammonia in combination with basic aluminum oxide for extract clean-up. Use of a keeper was found inappropriate as LC-FLD analysis was significantly affected by co-eluting keeper components. Similar observations were made with some of the investigated syringe filters, where polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) proved to be the most suitable. Validation and application of the optimized methodology to real samples provided limits of detection and quantification suitable for the evaluation of relevant ergot alkaloid contaminations in rye and bakery products with superior precision that was facilitated by the introduced internal standard, LSD. View Full-Text
Keywords: ergot alkaloids; rye products; LSD; LC-FLD ergot alkaloids; rye products; LSD; LC-FLD
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Holderied, I.; Rychlik, M.; Elsinghorst, P.W. Optimized Analysis of Ergot Alkaloids in Rye Products by Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection Applying Lysergic Acid Diethylamide as an Internal Standard. Toxins 2019, 11, 184.

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