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Toxins 2019, 11(2), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11020095

Venomics of Trimeresurus (Popeia) nebularis, the Cameron Highlands Pit Viper from Malaysia: Insights into Venom Proteome, Toxicity and Neutralization of Antivenom

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia;
2
Department of Molecular Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
3
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Minden, Penang, Malaysia
4
Department of Emergency Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, 56000 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
5
Thai Red Cross Society, Queen Saovabha Memorial Institute, Bangkok 10330, Thailand
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 December 2018 / Revised: 23 January 2019 / Accepted: 30 January 2019 / Published: 6 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Venoms)
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Abstract

Trimeresurus nebularis is a montane pit viper that causes bites and envenomation to various communities in the central highland region of Malaysia, in particular Cameron’s Highlands. To unravel the venom composition of this species, the venom proteins were digested by trypsin and subjected to nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) for proteomic profiling. Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMP) dominated the venom proteome by 48.42% of total venom proteins, with a characteristic distribution of P-III: P-II classes in a ratio of 2:1, while P-I class was undetected. Snaclecs constituted the second most venomous protein family (19.43%), followed by snake venom serine proteases (SVSP, 14.27%), phospholipases A2 (5.40%), disintegrins (5.26%) and minor proteins including cysteine-rich secretory proteins, L-amino acid oxidases, phosphodiesterases, 5′-nucleotidases. The venomic profile correlates with local (painful progressive edema) and systemic (hemorrhage, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia) manifestation of T. nebularis envenoming. As specific antivenom is unavailable for T. nebularis, the hetero-specific Thai Green Pit viper Monovalent Antivenom (GPVAV) was examined for immunological cross-reactivity. GPVAV exhibited good immunoreactivity to T. nebularis venom and the antivenom effectively cross-neutralized the hemotoxic and lethal effects of T. nebularis (lethality neutralizing potency = 1.6 mg venom per mL antivenom). The findings supported GPVAV use in treating T. nebularis envenoming. View Full-Text
Keywords: Trimeresurus nebularis; Popeia nebularis; venom proteome; envenomation; proteomics; antivenom; neutralization Trimeresurus nebularis; Popeia nebularis; venom proteome; envenomation; proteomics; antivenom; neutralization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Tan, C.H.; Tan, K.Y.; Ng, T.S.; Quah, E.S.; Ismail, A.K.; Khomvilai, S.; Sitprija, V.; Tan, N.H. Venomics of Trimeresurus (Popeia) nebularis, the Cameron Highlands Pit Viper from Malaysia: Insights into Venom Proteome, Toxicity and Neutralization of Antivenom. Toxins 2019, 11, 95.

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