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Open AccessArticle

Mycotoxin Dietary Exposure Assessment through Fruit Juices Consumption in Children and Adult Population

Laboratory of Toxicology and Food Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Valencia, Burjassot, 46100 Valencia, Spain
Faculty of Agricultural Science, National University of Asunción, San Lorenzo 2160, Paraguay
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(12), 684;
Received: 25 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 19 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mycotoxins in Food: Origin and Management of Risk)
Consumption of fruit juice is becoming trendy for consumers seeking freshness and high vitamin and low caloric intake. Mycotoxigenic moulds may infect fruits during crop growth, harvest, and storage leading to mycotoxin production. Many mycotoxins are resistant to food processing, which make their presence in the final juice product very likely expected. In this way, the presence of 30 mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), aflatoxin B2 (AFB2), aflatoxin G1 (AFG1), aflatoxin G2 (AFG2), alternariol (AOH), alternariol monomethyl ether (AME), Ochratoxin A (OTA), fumonisin B1 (FB1), fumonisin B2 (FB2), enniatin A (ENNA), enniatin A1 (ENNA1), enniatin B (ENNB), enniatin B1 (ENNB1), beauvericin (BEA), sterigmatocystin (STG), zearalenone (ZEA), α-zearalanol (α-ZAL), β-zearalanol (β-ZAL), α-zearalenol (α-ZOL), β-zearalenol (β-ZOL), deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15-ADON), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), nivalenol (NIV), fusarenon-X (FUS-X), neosolaniol (NEO), patulin (PAT), T-2 toxin and HT-2 toxin was evaluated in 80 juice samples collected from Valencia retail Market. An efficient Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction method (DLLME) was carried out before their trace level determination by chromatographic techniques coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The results obtained revealed the presence of nine mycotoxins namely AOH, AME, PAT, OTA, AFB1, AFB2, AFG2, β-ZAL, and HT2 in the analyzed samples, with incidences ranging from 3 to 29% and mean contents between 0.14 and 59.52 µg/L. Considerable percentages of TDIs were reached by children when 200 mL was considered as daily fruit juice intake. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxins; fruit juice; DLLME; risk assessment mycotoxins; fruit juice; DLLME; risk assessment
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pallarés, N.; Carballo, D.; Ferrer, E.; Fernández-Franzón, M.; Berrada, H. Mycotoxin Dietary Exposure Assessment through Fruit Juices Consumption in Children and Adult Population. Toxins 2019, 11, 684.

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