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CagA Effector Protein in Helicobacter pylori-Infected Human Gastric Epithelium in Vivo: From Bacterial Core and Adhesion/Injection Clusters to Host Cell Proteasome-Rich Cytosol
Review

Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors Exploiting Gastric Colonization and its Pathogenicity

by 1 and 2,3,4,5,*
1
Department of Microbiology, Chitwan Medical College and Teaching Hospital, Bharatpur 44200, Chitwan, Nepal
2
Department of Environmental and Preventive Medicine, Oita University Faculty of Medicine, Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan
3
Global Oita Medical Advanced Research Center for Health, Idaigaoka, Hasama-machi, Yufu, Oita 879-5593, Japan
4
Department of Medicine, Gastroenterology and Hepatology Section, Baylor College of Medicine, 2002 Holcombe Blvd., Houston, TX 77030, USA
5
Borneo Medical and Health Research Centre, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Kota Kinabaru, Sabah 88400, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 677; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110677
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 15 November 2019 / Accepted: 16 November 2019 / Published: 19 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Helicobacter pylori Infection–Inducement of Gastroenteric Diseases)
Helicobacter pylori colonizes the gastric epithelial cells of at least half of the world’s population, and it is the strongest risk factor for developing gastric complications like chronic gastritis, ulcer diseases, and gastric cancer. To successfully colonize and establish a persistent infection, the bacteria must overcome harsh gastric conditions. H. pylori has a well-developed mechanism by which it can survive in a very acidic niche. Despite bacterial factors, gastric environmental factors and host genetic constituents together play a co-operative role for gastric pathogenicity. The virulence factors include bacterial colonization factors BabA, SabA, OipA, and HopQ, and the virulence factors necessary for gastric pathogenicity include the effector proteins like CagA, VacA, HtrA, and the outer membrane vesicles. Bacterial factors are considered more important. Here, we summarize the recent information to better understand several bacterial virulence factors and their role in the pathogenic mechanism. View Full-Text
Keywords: Helicobacter pylori; gastritis; peptic ulcer; gastric cancer; CagA; cagPAI Helicobacter pylori; gastritis; peptic ulcer; gastric cancer; CagA; cagPAI
MDPI and ACS Style

Ansari, S.; Yamaoka, Y. Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors Exploiting Gastric Colonization and its Pathogenicity. Toxins 2019, 11, 677. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110677

AMA Style

Ansari S, Yamaoka Y. Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors Exploiting Gastric Colonization and its Pathogenicity. Toxins. 2019; 11(11):677. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110677

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ansari, Shamshul, and Yoshio Yamaoka. 2019. "Helicobacter pylori Virulence Factors Exploiting Gastric Colonization and its Pathogenicity" Toxins 11, no. 11: 677. https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110677

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