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Open AccessArticle

ACP-TX-I and ACP-TX-II, Two Novel Phospholipases A2 Isolated from Trans-Pecos Copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Venom: Biochemical and Functional Characterization

1
Departamento de Ciencias Básicas, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Escuela de Medicina Humana, Universidad Peruana Unión (UPeU), Lima 15, Peru
2
Instituto de Tecnologia e Pesquisa, Universidade Tiradentes (UNIT), Aracaju 49032-490, SE, Brazil
3
Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas 13083-970, SP, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 661; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110661
Received: 26 September 2019 / Revised: 30 October 2019 / Accepted: 6 November 2019 / Published: 14 November 2019
This work reports the purification and biochemical and functional characterization of ACP-TX-I and ACP-TX-II, two phospholipases A2 (PLA2) from Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster venom. Both PLA2s were highly purified by a single chromatographic step on a C18 reverse phase HPLC column. Various peptide sequences from these two toxins showed similarity to those of other PLA2 toxins from viperid snake venoms. ACP-TX-I belongs to the catalytically inactive K49 PLA2 class, while ACP-TX-II is a D49 PLA2, and is enzymatically active. ACP-TX-I PLA2 is monomeric, which results in markedly diminished myotoxic and inflammatory activities when compared with dimeric K49 PLA2s, confirming the hypothesis that dimeric structure contributes heavily to the profound myotoxicity of the most active viperid K49 PLA2s. ACP-TX-II exhibits the main pharmacological actions reported for this protein family, including in vivo local myotoxicity, edema-forming activity, and in vitro cytotoxicity. ACP-TX-I PLA2 is cytotoxic to A549 lung carcinoma cells, indicating that cytotoxicity to these tumor cells does not require enzymatic activity. View Full-Text
Keywords: snake venom; Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster; D49 PLA2; homologous K49 PLA2; myotoxin; edema-forming activity and cytotoxicity snake venom; Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster; D49 PLA2; homologous K49 PLA2; myotoxin; edema-forming activity and cytotoxicity
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Huancahuire-Vega, S.; Hollanda, L.M.; Gomes-Heleno, M.; Newball-Noriega, E.E.; Marangoni, S. ACP-TX-I and ACP-TX-II, Two Novel Phospholipases A2 Isolated from Trans-Pecos Copperhead Agkistrodon contortrix pictigaster Venom: Biochemical and Functional Characterization. Toxins 2019, 11, 661.

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