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Decontamination of T-2 Toxin in Maize by Modified Montmorillonite Clay

1
Department of Biological Sciences, Covenant University, Ota 112233, Ogun State, Nigeria
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Department of Biotechnology and Food Technology, University of Johannesburg, Doornfontein Campus, Gauteng 2028, South Africa
3
Chemistry Department, Faculty of Applied and Computer Science, Vaal University of Technology, Vanderbijlpark Campus, Boulevard, Vanderbijlpark 1900, South Africa
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(11), 616; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11110616
Received: 8 September 2019 / Revised: 11 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
Montmorillonite clay has a wide range of applications, one of which includes the binding of mycotoxins in foods and feeds through adsorption. T-2 toxin, produced by some Fusarium, Myrothecium, and Stachybotrys species, causes dystrophy in the brain, heart, and kidney. Various formulations that include lemongrass essential oil-modified montmorillonite clay (LGEO-MMT), lemongrass powder (LGP), montmorillonite clay washed with 1 mM NaCl (Na-MMT), montmorillonite clay (MMT), and lemongrass powder mixed with montmorillonite clay (LGP-MMT) were applied to maize at concentrations of 8% and 12% and stored for a period of one month at 30 °C. Unmodified montmorillonite clay and LGP served as the negative controls alongside untreated maize. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra of the various treatments showed the major functional groups as Si-O and -OH. All treatment formulations were effective in the decontamination of T-2 toxin in maize. Accordingly, it was revealed that the inclusion of Na-MMT in maize at a concentration of 8% was most effective in decontaminating T-2 toxin by 66% in maize followed by LGP-MMT at 12% inclusion level recording a 56% decontamination of T-2 toxin in maize (p = 0.05). Montmorillonite clay can be effectively modified with plant extracts for the decontamination of T-2 toxin. View Full-Text
Keywords: decontamination; adsorption; T-2 toxin; montmorillonite clay; Cymbopogon citratus; maize decontamination; adsorption; T-2 toxin; montmorillonite clay; Cymbopogon citratus; maize
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MDPI and ACS Style

Olopade, B.K.; Oranusi, S.U.; Nwinyi, O.C.; Lawal, I.A.; Gbashi, S.; Njobeh, P.B. Decontamination of T-2 Toxin in Maize by Modified Montmorillonite Clay. Toxins 2019, 11, 616.

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