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Open AccessArticle

Alternative mRNA Splicing in Three Venom Families Underlying a Possible Production of Divergent Venom Proteins of the Habu Snake, Protobothrops flavoviridis

1
Department of Molecular and Chemical Life Science, Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577, Japan
2
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sojo University, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan
3
Marine Genomics Unit, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan
4
Department of Applied Life Science, Faculty of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sojo University, Kumamoto 860-0082, Japan
5
Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Oshima-gun, Kagoshima 894-1531, Japan
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Division of Genomics, Medical Institute of Bioregulation, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8582, Japan
7
DNA Sequencing Section, Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University, Onna, Okinawa 904-0495, Japan.
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2019, 11(10), 581; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11100581
Received: 31 July 2019 / Revised: 2 October 2019 / Accepted: 5 October 2019 / Published: 9 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Venom Proteomics and Transcriptomics)
Snake venoms are complex mixtures of toxic proteins encoded by various gene families that function synergistically to incapacitate prey. A huge repertoire of snake venom genes and proteins have been reported, and alternative splicing is suggested to be involved in the production of divergent gene transcripts. However, a genome-wide survey of the transcript repertoire and the extent of alternative splicing still remains to be determined. In this study, the comprehensive analysis of transcriptomes in the venom gland was achieved by using PacBio sequencing. Extensive alternative splicing was observed in three venom protein gene families, metalloproteinase (MP), serine protease (SP), and vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF). Eleven MP and SP genes and a VEGF gene are expressed as a total of 81, 61, and 8 transcript variants, respectively. In the MP gene family, individual genes are transcribed into different classes of MPs by alternative splicing. We also observed trans-splicing among the clustered SP genes. No other venom genes as well as non-venom counterpart genes exhibited alternative splicing. Our results thus indicate a potential contribution of mRNA alternative and trans-splicing in the production of highly variable transcripts of venom genes in the habu snake. View Full-Text
Keywords: venom genes and proteins; metalloproteinase; serine protease; vascular endothelial growth factor; transcriptome variants venom genes and proteins; metalloproteinase; serine protease; vascular endothelial growth factor; transcriptome variants
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Ogawa, T.; Oda-Ueda, N.; Hisata, K.; Nakamura, H.; Chijiwa, T.; Hattori, S.; Isomoto, A.; Yugeta, H.; Yamasaki, S.; Fukumaki, Y.; Ohno, M.; Satoh, N.; Shibata, H. Alternative mRNA Splicing in Three Venom Families Underlying a Possible Production of Divergent Venom Proteins of the Habu Snake, Protobothrops flavoviridis. Toxins 2019, 11, 581.

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