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Toxins 2018, 10(8), 327;

Feasibility of A Novel On-Site Detection Method for Aflatoxin in Maize Flour from Markets and Selected Households in Kampala, Uganda

Department of Molecular Cell Biology, VU University Amsterdam, De Boelelaan 1108, 1081 HZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Yoba for Life Foundation, Hunzestraat 133-A, 1079 WB Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Nursing, Muni University, P.O. Box 725 Arua, Uganda
Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology Centre, Product Development Directory, Uganda Industrial Research Institute, P.O. Box 7086 Kampala, Uganda
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Kyambogo University, P.O. Box 1 Kyambogo, Uganda
Department of Biochemistry and Sports Science, School of Biological Sciences, College of Natural Sciences, Makerere University, P.O. Box 7082 Kampala, Uganda
TNO, Microbiology and Systems Biology, Utrechtseweg 48, 3704 HE Zeist, The Netherlands
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 July 2018 / Revised: 8 August 2018 / Accepted: 9 August 2018 / Published: 11 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Methods for Mycotoxins Detection)
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In sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high demand for affordable and accessible methods for on-site detection of aflatoxins for appropriate food safety management. In this study, we validated an electrochemical immunosensor device by the on-site detection of 60 maize flour samples from six markets and 72 samples from households in Kampala. The immunosensor was successfully validated with a linear range from 0.7 ± 0.1 to 11 ± 0.3 µg/kg and limit of detection (LOD) of 0.7 µg/kg. The maize flour samples from the markets had a mean total aflatoxin concentration of 7.6 ± 2.3 µg/kg with approximately 20% of the samples higher than 10 µg/kg, which is the maximum acceptable level in East Africa. Further down the distribution chain, at the household level, approximately 45% of the total number contained total aflatoxin levels higher than the acceptable limit. The on-site detection method correlated well with the established laboratory-based HPLC and ELISA-detection methods for aflatoxin B1 with the correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.98, respectively. This study shows the feasibility of a novel on-site detection method and articulates the severity of aflatoxin contamination in Uganda. View Full-Text
Keywords: aflatoxins; maize; households; markets; immunosensor; HPLC; ELISA aflatoxins; maize; households; markets; immunosensor; HPLC; ELISA

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Paul Wacoo, A.; Wendiro, D.; Nanyonga, S.; Hawumba, J.F.; Sybesma, W.; Kort, R. Feasibility of A Novel On-Site Detection Method for Aflatoxin in Maize Flour from Markets and Selected Households in Kampala, Uganda. Toxins 2018, 10, 327.

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