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Toxins 2018, 10(7), 284; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10070284

Toxicity Assay for Citrinin, Zearalenone and Zearalenone-14-Sulfate Using the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as Model Organism

1
Department of Analytical Chemistry, Reference Materials, Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und-Prüfung (BAM), Richard-Willstätter-Str. 11, 12489 Berlin, Germany
2
Department of Food Chemistry and Toxicology, Technische Universität Berlin, Gustav-Meyer-Allee 25, 13355 Berlin, Germany
3
Institute of Biology, Ecology, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Philippstr. 13, 10115 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 May 2018 / Revised: 17 June 2018 / Accepted: 6 July 2018 / Published: 9 July 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
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Abstract

To keep pace with the rising number of detected mycotoxins, there is a growing need for fast and reliable toxicity tests to assess potential threats to food safety. Toxicity tests with the bacterial-feeding nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as the model organism are well established. In this study the C. elegans wildtype strain N2 (var. Bristol) was used to investigate the toxic effects of the food-relevant mycotoxins citrinin (CIT) and zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEA-14-S) and zearalenone (ZEA) on different life cycle parameters including reproduction, thermal and oxidative stress resistance and lifespan. The metabolization of the mycotoxins by the nematodes in vivo was investigated using HPLC-MS/MS. ZEA was metabolized in vivo to the reduced isomers α-zearalenol (α-ZEL) and β-ZEL. ZEA-14-S was reduced to α-/β-ZEL-14-sulfate and CIT was metabolized to mono-hydroxylated CIT. All mycotoxins tested led to a significant decrease in the number of nematode offspring produced. ZEA and CIT displayed negative effects on stress tolerance levels and for CIT an additional shortening of the mean lifespan was observed. In the case of ZEA-14-S, however, the mean lifespan was prolonged. The presented study shows the applicability of C. elegans for toxicity testing of emerging food mycotoxins for the purpose of assigning potential health threats. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycotoxin; toxicity testing; food safety; Caenorhabditis elegans; metabolization mycotoxin; toxicity testing; food safety; Caenorhabditis elegans; metabolization
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Keller, J.; Borzekowski, A.; Haase, H.; Menzel, R.; Rueß, L.; Koch, M. Toxicity Assay for Citrinin, Zearalenone and Zearalenone-14-Sulfate Using the Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as Model Organism. Toxins 2018, 10, 284.

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