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Open AccessArticle

Mycotoxins Contaminant in Kelp: A Neglected Dietary Exposure Pathway

Marine Product Quality and Safety Inspection Key Laboratory in Shandong Province, College of Life Science, Yantai University, Yantai 264005, China
NHC Key Lab of Food Safety Risk Assessment, China National Center for Food Safety Risk Assessment, Beijing 100022, China
College of Food Science and Engineering, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai’an 271018, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Toxins 2018, 10(11), 481;
Received: 8 October 2018 / Revised: 28 October 2018 / Accepted: 12 November 2018 / Published: 19 November 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Mycotoxins)
PDF [2202 KB, uploaded 19 November 2018]


In order to investigated current occurrence of major mycotoxins in dietary kelp in Shandong Province in Northern China, a reliable, sensitive, and rapid liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of the 7 most frequent mycotoxins, including 3-acetoxy deoxynivalenol (3AcDON), 15-acetoxy deoxynivalenol (15AcDON), Deoxynivalenol (DON), Fusarenon-X (F-X), Nivalenol (NIV), T-2 toxin (T-2), and Zearalenone (ZEA). Based on optimized pretreatment and chromatographic and mass spectrometry conditions, these target analytes could be monitored with mean recoveries from 72.59~107.34%, with intra–day RSD < 9.21%, inter–day RSD < 9.09%, LOD < 5.55 μg kg−1, and LOQ < 18.5 μg kg−1. Approximately 43 kelp samples were detected, 3AcDON/15AcDON ranged from 15.3 to 162.5 μg kg−1 with positive rate of 86% in Shandong Province in Northern China. Considering there were no related investigations about mycotoxin contamination in kelp, the high contamination rate of 3AcDON/15AcDON in kelp showed a neglected mycotoxin exposure pathway, which might lead to high dietary exposure risk to consumers. View Full-Text
Keywords: LC-MS/MS; mycotoxins; dietary exposure risk; kelp; Northern China LC-MS/MS; mycotoxins; dietary exposure risk; kelp; Northern China

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Li, Y.; Sun, M.; Mao, X.; You, Y.; Gao, Y.; Yang, J.; Wu, Y. Mycotoxins Contaminant in Kelp: A Neglected Dietary Exposure Pathway. Toxins 2018, 10, 481.

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