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Toxins 2018, 10(11), 463; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins10110463

An Evaluation of Boar Spermatozoa as a Biosensor for the Detection of Sublethal and Lethal Toxicity

1
Department of Civil Engineering, Aalto University, Rakentajanaukio 4, 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Department of Applied Physics, Aalto University, Puumiehenkuja 2, 02150 Espoo, Finland
3
Faculty of Science and Informatics, Department of Microbiology, University of Szeged, Közép Fasor 52, H-6726 Szeged, Hungary
4
Evidensia Valla Djursjukhus Linköping, Westmansgatan 21, 58216 Linköping, Sweden
5
Georgikon Faculty, Department of Animal Sciences, University of Pannonia, Deak F. u. 16, H-8360 Keszthely, Hungary
6
Independent Scholar, 00550 Helsinki, Finland
7
Department of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate tee 5, 19086 Tallinn, Estonia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 29 September 2018 / Revised: 20 October 2018 / Accepted: 5 November 2018 / Published: 8 November 2018
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Abstract

A novel, objective, and rapid computed motility inhibition (CMI) assay was developed to identify and assess sublethal injury in toxin-exposed boar spermatozoa and compared with a subjective visual motility inhibition (VMI) assay. The CMI values were calculated from digital micrographic videos using a custom MATLAB® script by contrasting the motility index values of each experiment with those of the background and control experiments. Following a comparison of the CMI and VMI assays results, it was determined that their agreement depended on the shape of the dose-response curve. Toxins that exhibited a steep slope were indicative of good agreement between the assays. Those depicted by a gentle decline in the slope of the dose-response curve, the CMI assay were shown to be two times more sensitive than the VMI assay. The CMI assay was highly sensitive to the inhibition of mitochondrial function and glucose transport activity by sublethal doses of toxins and to disruption of cellular cation homeostasis by carrier ionophoric toxins, when compared to the cytotoxicity and lethal toxicity assays (i.e., that evaluated the inhibition of cell proliferation in somatic cell lines (FL, PK-15, and MNA cells)) and disruption to spermatozoa membrane integrity. The CMI assay recognized subtle sublethal toxicity changes in metabolism, manifested as a decrease in boar spermatozoa motility. Thus, it was feasible to effectively compare the objectively-measured numerical values for motility inhibition using the CMI assay against those reflecting lethal damage in the spermatozoa cells and somatic cell lines using a cytotoxicity assay. View Full-Text
Keywords: biological toxins; biosensor; boar spermatozoa; MATLAB; toxicity; computed motility inhibition; CASA biological toxins; biosensor; boar spermatozoa; MATLAB; toxicity; computed motility inhibition; CASA
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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    Description: SpermTest Source Code
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Castagnoli, E.; Salo, J.; Toivonen, M.S.; Marik, T.; Mikkola, R.; Kredics, L.; Vicente-Carrillo, A.; Nagy, S.; Andersson, M.T.; Andersson, M.A.; Kurnitski, J.; Salonen, H. An Evaluation of Boar Spermatozoa as a Biosensor for the Detection of Sublethal and Lethal Toxicity. Toxins 2018, 10, 463.

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